The essay poses the question whether the so-called Arab spring offers the potential to complete the 1989 revolutions. It first discusses what was hoped to be achieved in 1989, and it then argues that the post-1989 arrangements failed to prevent new security challenges from emerging. The Islamist threat came to play the role that the Communist threat had played to the West or the Western threat had played to the East. The essay then turns to the question on what needs to happen if current events are to lead to something better. It argues that there is a need to overcome the legacies of the past and adapt institutions to the global present. The world must move away from nationalist and bloc thinking towards a concept of human security — a concept which came out of the Helsinki Agreements in 1975. The case of the recent intervention in Libya illustrates the need for a human security approach in practice.
The Living Rosary Association, a renewed form of the rosary confraternity, was principally an association of the peasantry and lower social strata in Hungary. The paper presents and interprets the confraternity practice of a settlement (Kunszentmárton, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County on the Hungarian Great Plain), through confraternity minutes (1851-1940), the fraternity's religious literature and journal, interviews and comparison with other fraternities. The rosary was principally a form of female devotion. However, up to the 1940s the leaders were men. The high degree of feminisation can be interpreted in the frame of the process of secularisation. In the course of the processes of economic, social and cultural modernisation, the tasks of the private sphere within the family (running the household, raising children) fell to women. Within this frame they also provided for the family's sacral world. Until the 1940s the rosary confraternity preserved its character as a women's mass movement. At the turn of the 19th-20th century the prayer groups were organised on a family and neighbourhood basis. The confraternity also established its own funeral society, linking the living and the dead in prayer. Among the reasons for the popularity of the rosary were its democratic nature and the clear religious goals: it provided the faithful with an institutional frame for their charitable activity; it set readily understandable and easily performed tasks for its members; it required the acceptable co-ordination of individual and communal forms of religious practice. The prayer had a flexible spatial and temporal structure, that is, the prayers could be said at any time and anywhere, even during work. This ensured for devotions a required intimacy but at the same time also a communal character. We have a tendency in research to regard the religious confraternities only as a sociological and cultural phenomenon, forgetting the transcendental aspects they have for members. Besides the few characteristics mentioned so far, membership of the rosary confraternity offered and still offers its members the possibility of salvation through the certainty of faith. This gives the members the security of hope for the future.
Regulation No 2320/2002/EC of the European Parliament and European Council establishing common rules in the field of civil aviation security. 16 December 2002. [2320/2002/EK európai parlamenti és tanácsi rendelet.] Európai
We analyze the effect of data-compression on security of encryption both from theoretical and practical point of view. It is demonstrated that data-compression essentially improves the security of encryption, helps to overcome technical difficulties. On the other side, it makes crypt-analysis more difficult and causes extra problems. At present data-compression applied rarely and frequently defectively. We propose a method which eliminates the negative effects. Our aim is initiate data compression as an aid for data security. To this end we provide an overview of the most frequently used cryptographic protocols. A comparison with encryption software reveals that even the most frequently used protocols do not support encryption and compression.
The threats, both real and perceived, posed by pastoral nomadic peoples to the security of sedentary societies and states are too well known to bear repetition here. Civilised states were not always completely helpless before the onslaughts of nomadic warriors and could sometimes choose from a repertoire of diplomatic, tactical, and strategic measures and cautions in response to present or imminent nomadic attacks. This article, which draws on Chinese, Byzantine, and European sources, surveys several of these measures and ends with a more in-depth consideration of crossbows and other arcuballistae. It concludes that these were often the most effective weapons for fighting nomadic cavalrymen.
This paper presents and analyzes the rules of provisional and protective measures as laid down in the current Draft of the New Hungarian Civil Procedure. It focuses on the purposes and contents of the provisional measures and devotes a separate section to the function of the security that the applicant has to deposit if ordered by the court. The paper concludes that provisional measures have a special mixed character in the sense that they are simultaneously and tightly connected to substantive law and procedural law. The security is regulated in accordance with this mixed character.