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. Morales , M.B. , J. Traba , E. Carriles , M. P. Delgado and E. L. García de la Morena . 2008 . Sexual differences in microhabitat selection of breeding Little Bustards Tetrax tetrax : ecological segregation based on vegetation structure . Acta

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Abstract  

The industrial pollution is exponentially growing in the developing countries due to the discharge of untreated effluents from the industries in the open atmosphere. This may cause severe health hazards in the general public. To reduce this effect, it is essential to remove the toxic and heavy metals from the effluents before their disposal into the biosphere. In this context, samples of the effluents were collected from the textile/yarn, ceramics and pulp/paper industries and the concentrations of the toxic metal ions were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The observed concentration values of the As, Cr and Fe ions, in the unprocessed industrial effluents, were 4.91 ± 0.8, 9.67 ± 0.7 and 9.71 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively which was well above the standard recommended limits (i.e. 1.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively). In order to remove the toxic metal ions from the effluents, the samples were treated with pea nut husk fence. After this treatment, 91.5% arsenic, 81.9% chromium and 66.5% iron metal ions were successfully removed from the effluents. Then the treated effluents contained concerned toxic metal ions concentrations within the permissible limits as recommended by the national environmental quality standards (NEQS).

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Learning & Perception
Authors: Orsolya Szalárdy, Alexandra Bendixen, Dénes Tóth, Susan L. Denham, and István Winkler

, T. M., Szalárdy, O., Mill, R., Denham, S. L., Winkler, I. (2012): Different roles of similarity and predictability in auditory stream segregation. Learning and Perception, 4, 37–54. Bendixen, A., Denham, S. L., Gyimesi, K

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Learning & Perception
Authors: Tamás M. Bőhm, Lidia Shestopalova, Alexandra Bendixen, Andreas G. Andreou, Julius Georgiou, Guillame Garreau, Philippe Pouliquen, Andrew Cassidy, Susan L. Denham, and István Winkler

. 297–346). San Diego: Academic Press. Grimault, N., Bacon, S. P., Micheyl, C. (2002). Auditory stream segregation on the basis of amplitude-modulation rate. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 111, 1340

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Learning & Perception
Authors: Alexandra Bendixen, Tamás M. Bőhm, Orsolya Szalárdy, Robert Mill, Susan L. Denham, and István Winkler

. (2011): The role of temporal regularity in auditory segregation. Hearing Research, 280, 228–235. Anstis, S., Saida, S. (1985): Adaptation to auditory streaming of frequency-modulated tones. Journal of Experimental Psychology

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Dense in-group and scarce out-group relations (network segregation) often support the emergence of conflicts between groups. A key underlying mechanism is social control that helps to overcome the collective action problem within groups, but contributes to harmful conflicts among them in segregated settings. In this study, a new experimental design is introduced to test whether internalized social control affects contribution decisions in intergroup-related collective action. Subjects played single-shot Intergroup Public Good games in two groups of five each without communication. Subjects were connected via computers and connection patterns were manipulated to detect forms of social control that are activated conditional on expectations and on the composition of the artificially created ego-network. Results confirm the influence of behavioral confirmation and the conditional impact of internalized traitor and selective incentives. As an aggregated consequence of these social control effects, harmful intergroup outcomes were least likely when members of the groups were arranged in a mixed network. JEL classification: C91; C92; D74; H41; Z13

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A model is proposed to describe the kinetics of solute segregation to partial dislocations in solid solutions of cold-rolled alloys. The case when half edge and half screw dislocations are present is considered. The model gives account of the kinetic behaviour observed in a deformed Cu-19 at% Al alloy where two unknown processes could be assessed during calorimetric isothermal experiments. The faster process corresponds to segregation to screw dissociated dislocations while the slower one corresponds to segregation to edge dissociated dislocations. Experimental activation energies, larger for edge dislocations, are close to that for pipe diffusion along the partials corrected by pinner binding energy terms. It is also predicted that segregation occurs faster as the dislocation density is increased. A quantitative comparison of experimental results with model predictions is given.

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A great challenge in ecology is to link patterns in nature with the factors that determine species coexistence and community structure. In general, these patterns have been associated with different environmental conditions and species traits. The coexistence of ant species could be affected by the availability of food and nesting resources, which depend on vegetation diversity and structural complexity. In this study, we attempt to reproduce, through null models, the properties of ant community structure in areas with different physiognomy of vegetation associated to different wildfire regimes. The null model construction considered ant traits such as occurrence frequency, body size, and nest type; and site characteristics such as vegetation height and extra-floral nectar availability, and their combinations. The null models were compared to observed species segregation and nestedness patterns. Ant species were more aggregated in space than expected by chance. Vegetation height and extra-floral nectar availability were included in the most successful models in predicting ant segregation and aggregation pattern. Furthermore, ants’ body size was enough to reproduce the nestedness of species distribution in sites. Our results suggest that under post-fire conditions, habitat complexity, resource availability and species traits such as body size may be the determinants of ant community structure.

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Pure alkali metal preparation is a complex problem: in most available commercial samples, all of them are simultaneously present. Conventional separation techniques are not always effective enough to reach parts per million total impurity levels. However, near the melting point, superficial segregation occurs. A zone melting derived technique coupled with a specifically developed solvent extraction process allows the total impurity content of sodium to be lowered below a few parts per million. The described thermal process, although using chemical reactions, is purely physically steered: it purifies as well potassium containing sodium as sodium containing potassium. 4 alkali metals are considered: Li, Na; K, and Cs.

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Competing groups in a population will be integrated or segregated depending on their contest strategies. In this work a population of a fixed proportion of hawks and doves is supposed to be able to employ two different contest strategies, one more competitive than the other one. Energies are derived for populations employing these strategies and these energies depend on the availability of the resource for which hawks and doves compete. The energy for the less competitive strategy is lower than the other one when the resource is abundant. In that case hawks and doves can be in cohabitation in all proportions. If, however, the resource is scarce, the energy of the more competitive strategy is lower than the other one. In that case complete segregation of hawks and doves into colonies will result. The situation is akin to the phase pressure diagram of a binary solution with eutectic point, miscibility gap in the liquid phase and complete miscibility in the vapour phase.

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