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Bibliography Barnes , T. D. 1970 : The Goddess Caelestis in the “Historia Augusta” . The Journal of TheologicalStudies , N. S. 21 , pp. 96 – 101 . Birley , A. R. 1988 : The African Emperor. Septimius Severus . London

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Pannonica. SpecNova 3–38. Tóth I. 1989 The Remains of the Cult of Magna Mater and Attis in Pannonia. SpecNova 59–121. Tóth I. 2001 Fischer F.–Vonyó J. (szerk.): Septimius Severus trónra emelése és Savaria

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“Pannonia terra creat, tumulat italia tellus” •

Cavalieri pannonici a Roma al servizio dell’imperatore

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: Melinda Székely

The role of Pannonian soldiers in the guards is traceable from the 2nd century while their number and significance had grown considerably both in the units of praetoriani and equites singulares from the rule of Septimius Severus. Inscriptional sources mention that from time to time their families, wives and kin moved to Rome with the guardsmen. On their gravestone reliefs, one can find themes both from their homelands, traditions and from new Roman erudition. The decades spent serving the Emperor in Rome could mean social advancement, gaining fortune and recognition while the best ones could become military officers. After retiring from service, they could play an important role in the life of the province and in the Romanization of Pannonia as well.

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provinziale Verwaltung. Budapest–Amsterdam. Fitz, J. 1959 Der Besuch des Septimius Severus in Pannonien im Jahre 202 u. Z. ActaArchHung 11, 237–263. Fitz, J. 1983 Honorific Titles of Roman Military Units in

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. Coll. Latomus 158. Bruxelles 1978. Birley 1988 = A. R. Birley : Septimius Severus: The African emperor. London 19882. Birley 1997 = A. R. Birley : Marius Maximus: The

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A uniform display area for stone relics was created in the Savaria Museum of Szombathely in 2012, after the publication of the Lapidarium Savariense volume. While collecting the fragments stored in various locations, a new funerary inscription (Licinia Iusta) was identified together with a new altar stone dedicated to Jupiter. Presented here are the two new inscriptions and a new reading of an already known one (LapSav 157). The study is rounded off by the description of a manuscript penned by György Drinóczy (1831–1847) containing various Roman inscriptions.

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Abstract

The frescoes decorating the stateroom of the Episcopal palace of Szombathely were painted by Franz Anton Maulbertsch in 1783 on commission from bishop János Szily. The lateral walls received scenes from the history of the Roman predecessor of the town Savaria in the form of grisaille murals imitating bronze reliefs. The four paintings – Tiberius Claudius founds Savaria, Septimius Severus is elected emperor, Triumph of Constantinus Chlorus, and Attila chases the Romans out of Pannonia – conjure up the Roman world with a multitude of detail and with historical authenticity. Besides, they also deliberately apply the iconographic and compositional rules of relief sculpture in the Imperial Period. This historicizing rendering is an indicator of the new accent on historism, suggesting the 18th century transformation of the concept of history fed by the recognition of the historical distance between the event and the observer.

The ceiling shows the process of salvation under the governance of Providence. Some elements were borrowed by Maulbertsch from his earlier work in the former library of the Premonstratensian monastery in Louka, Moravia. The theme is the temporal process of the enlightenment of mankind, but the historical examples are replaced here by abstract notions, the time and space coordinates appearing highly generalized. In the middle the allegorical figure of Divine Providence arrives on clouds, with personifications of the Old and New Testaments beneath him suggesting periods in the history of salvation. As a counterpoint to Providence bringing the glimmer of dawn, the Allegory of the Night is depicted at the other end of the ceiling. The two sleeping figures are captives of the lulling power of the fauns symbolizing irrational existence governed by instincts. The pseudo-reliefs and sculptures painted in the corners represent heathenism, the ante legem period of the process of salvation. The medallions show typical episodes of bacchanals of putti, and the grisaille figures most likely repeat motifs of the bacchanal scene in the Louka fresco. The themes of the other three colour frescoes are Europe's apotheosis among the continents, Revelation of the True Religion, and the Apotheosis of Truth in the company of Religion, Humility and the Christian martyrs. It is actually a modernized psychomachy, presenting the victory of Christianity, faith and the virtues over paganism, the instincts and vices. The allegoric groups are witty renderings of conventional formulae.

The rich painted architecture of the ceiling is based on Paul Decker's pattern sheet complemented with neoclassical elements but preserving its irrational character. The illusory architecture, the rivaling lifelikeness of colourful and monochrome figures creates a play of degrees of reality that mobilize the imagination. Maulbertsch's pictorial world can be characterized with the concepts of delicieux and charmant used to describe Mozart's music; his tools of expression convey an ease and serenity that are not light-minded but with the tools of subtle irony and humour invite the viewer for more sophisticated reflections, contrary to the propagandistic allegories.

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Szemle 31 266 294 Birley A. 1988 The African Emperor Septimius Severus. London 1988

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– 250 . M ráv 2013 Zs. M ráv . : Septimius Severus and the cities of the Middle Danubian provinces . In: Studia Epigraphica in memoriam Géza Alföldy . Eds. W. Ec. P. Kovác. B. Fehé. . Antiquitas. Reihe I/61. Bonn 2013 , 205 – 240

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. László–Szabó 2016 = J. László – Á. Szabó : Római mérföldkőtöredék Almásfüzitőről (Ein römisches Meilensteinfragment aus Almásfüzitő (Ungarn). KDMÉ 22 ( 2016 ) 7 – 11 . Mráv 2013a = Zs. Mráv : Septimius Severus and the cities of the

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