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Abstract  

The measurement of textual patent similarities is crucial for important tasks in patent management, be it prior art analysis, infringement analysis, or patent mapping. In this paper the common theory of similarity measurement is applied to the field of patents, using solitary concepts as basic textual elements of patents. After unfolding the term ‘similarity’ in a content and formal oriented level and presenting a basic model of understanding, a segmented approach to the measurement of underlying variables, similarity coefficients, and the criteria-related profiles of their combinations is lined out. This leads to a guided way to the application of textual patent similarities, interesting both for theory and practice.

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function of differences among objects to be compared” (Jeong et al. 2008 ). Moehrle ( 2010 ) divides the range of available similarity coefficients into two groups, according to the applied variable(s). “(i) The similarity coefficients of the first group

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Three medicinal plants Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum bacilicum and Leucas aspera were screened to study endophytic diversity of the plants. Altogether 103 fungal endophytes belonging to fourteen genera were isolated. Leaves of all three medicinal plants were colonized by a great number of endophytic fungi. Leaves of O. sanctum were colonized by the most, that is, eleven endophytes. Highest Shannon-Wiener index (2.256) was exhibited by O. sanctum with the highest Simpson’s diversity (0.8654) indicating great species specificity. O. bacilicum and L. aspera showed the highest similarity coefficient. Some fungal genera have been showed to be host specific. In the present study Curvularia sp., Hymenula sp., Tricoderma sp. and Tubercularia sp. exclusively colonized O. sanctum ; whereas Alternaria sp. and Spicaria sp. colonized only L. aspera .

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: C. Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez, S. Villaseñor-Alvarado, Florentina Zurita-Martínez, O. Castellanos-Hernández, Araceli Rodríguez-Sahagún, M. Isabel Torres-Morán, D. Rojas-Bravo, and M. Gutiérrez-Lomelí

Anemopsis californica is a perennial herbaceous plant that has been utilized as a medicinal plant for the treatment of various diseases. The present work was carried out with the objective of optimizing a method of extraction of the genomic DNA of A. californica and a PCR protocol and later to evaluate the existing genetic diversity among the genotypes deriving from different origins. For DNA extraction, we tested four procedures: with the CTA B-2 protocol, we obtained the highest yield (61.5±2.2 μg DNA/g of leaf tissues) and the best quality (A260/280 1.83±0.022). To estimate genetic variability, we utilized the randomly amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) technique, employing 20 oligonucleotides, of which only 18 generated reproducible banding patterns, producing 123 polymorphic bands generated, thus obtaining a polymorphism rate of 93.93% among the genotypes analyzed. The Jaccard similarity coefficient generated a variation ranging from 0.325–0.921, indicating a high level of genetic variation among the studied genotypes. An Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) group analysis indicated six distinct groups. The present optimized method for DNA isolation and RAPD protocol may serve as an efficient tool for further molecular studies.

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Seven different Scutellaria species were analyzed using the extraction procedure (Soxhlet apparatus, dichloromethane, and methanol as solvents) and thin-layer chromatography method. Selected standards of flavonoids and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, baicalein, wogonin, baicalin, chrysin, quercetin, scutellarin, hesperetin, hesperidin, apigenin, luteolin, rutin, and kaempferol) were separated using silica gel thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates with the mobile phase consisting of ethyl acetate—toluene—formic acid (5:4.9:0.1, v/v) for dichloromethane and methanolic extracts. Dichloromethane extracts were also developed using cyanopropyl-bonded silica gel with the following mobile phases: propan-2-ol—n-heptane—formic acid (5:4.9:0.1, v/v) and methanol—water—formic acid (6:3.9:0.1, v/v), and after drying, they were sprayed using the anisaldehyde reagent. In the case of methanolic extracts, the same non-aqueous eluent was used and the aqueous eluent consisting of methanol—water—formic acid (4:5.9:0.1, v/v). The presence of selected standards in Scutellaria species was confirmed. The similarities between the obtained fingerprint chromatograms were performed using chemometric methods, the similarity coefficients (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, determination coefficient, and congruence coefficient), distance indices (Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance, and Chebyshev’s distance), and multi-scale structural similarity (MS-SSIM).

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.F. 1994a. Computing genetic similarity coefficients from RAPD data: the effects of PCR artifacts. PCR Methods Applic. 4: 31–37. Lamboy W.F. Computing genetic similarity coefficients

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method for character weighting a similarity coefficient, employing the concept of information. J. Int. Ass. Math. Geol. 2:25-38. On a method for character weighting a similarity coefficient, employing the concept of information

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Campbell, B. M. 1978. Similarity coefficients for classifying relevés. Vegetatio 37: 101-109. Similarity coefficients for classifying relevés Vegetatio 37

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in Tehran, 60 isolates with 70% similarity coefficients in three clusters and 85% similarity coefficients in 10 different clusters were included [ 12 ]. In this study, according to the results of RAPD-PCR, a total of 16 samples were studied using MLST

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Ljubiša Balanović, Dragana Živković, Aleksandra Mitovski, Dragan Manasijević, and Živan Živković

ξ ij in Eq. 3 present the similarity coefficients defined by η i —called the deviation sum of squares: (6) where (7) and (8) In all given equations, ΔG E and ΔG E ij correspond to the integral molar excess Gibbs energies for ternary and

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