Authors:Péter Csébi, Alexander Tichy, Michaela Gumpenberger, and Eberhard Ludewig
Introduction The pelvic limb has an important function in the propulsion of the body ( Nickel et al., 1986 ). The differences in the slope of the pelvis and the other joint angulations influence the performance of the hind limbs. Steep pelvis
Authors:X. Li, Y. Nie, X. Song, R. Zhang, and G. Wang
Badano, E. I., L. A. Cavieres, M. A. Molina-Montenegro and C. L. Quiroz. 2005. Slope aspect influences plant association patterns in the Mediterranean matorral of central Chile. J. Arid Environ. 62: 93
Modified least squares processes (MLSP’s) and self-randomized MLSP’s are introduced in D[0, 1] for the slope in linear structural and functional error-in-variables models (EIVM’s). Sup-norm approximations in probability
and, as a consequence, functional central limit theorems (CLT’s) are established for the data-based self-normalized versions
of these MLSP’s and self-randomized MLSP’s. The MLSP’s are believed to be new types of objects of study, and the invariance
principles for them constitute new asymptotics, in EIVM’s. Moreover, the obtained data-based functional CLT’s for the MLSP’s
open up new possibilities for constructing various asymptotic confidence intervals (CI’s) for the slope that are named functional
asymptotic CI’s here. Three special examples of such CI’s are given.
Authors:L.F. Barbosa, C.C. Greco, and Benedito Denadai
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the slope of the VO2 slow component (VO2sc) and exercise tolerance (tlim) during constant-work-rate (CWR) exercise performed within the severe intensity domain. Fifteen active subjects (VO2max = 41.2 ± 5.1 ml.kg−1.min−1) performed the following tests: 1) an incremental test to determine the VO2max and the work rate associated with the VO2max (IVO2max) and; 2) two CWR transitions at 95% of the IVO2max to determine the slope of the VO2 slow component and the tlim. Three tlims were obtained: tlim1 = CWR1; tlim2 = CWR2; and tlim1+2 = (CWR1 + CWR2) / 2. There was no significant difference between the VO2max (3271.7 ± 410.7 mL·min−1) and VO2peak obtained during the CWR tests (CWR1 = 3356.3 ± 448.8 mL·min−1, CWR2 = 3362.2 ± 393.4 mL·min−1, p > 0.05). Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found among the VO2sc kinetics and tlim1 (r = −0.53), tlim2 (r = −0.49) and tlim1+2 (r = −0.55). Thus, exercise tolerance during CWR performed within the severe intensity domain is partially explained by the slope of the VO2 slow component.
Hungarian excavations in the Theban necropolis have been extended to wide territories on the south slope of the El-Khokha hillock. In the 2005 season, the tracing of the epigraphic material of the mural decoration in the 19
Dynasy rock cut tomb of Nefermenu (TT 184) was completed. This monument, according to its characteristic religious, architectural and artistic layout, belongs to the so called “Khokha tomb-group” of TT 23 (Tjay), TT 32 (Djehutimes), TT 183 (Nebsumenu) and TT 264 (Ipiy). In previous seasons, the remains of a pyramid-like superstructure of a New Kingdom tomb were exposed, which probably belonged to Nefermenu’s monument. The research of the chronological position of this superstructure drew the attention to the structures in the upper section of the hillock, where architectural survey was carried out in the small and ruined New Kingdom rock cut tombs: TT 204, TT 205, TT 206, and (Kampp)-41-,-42-,-43-Excavation was also possible in one of these:-43-, and in a newly discovered, Middle Kingdom monument, a saff-tomb with eight-pillared façade, where material of secondary burials dated to the Third Intermediate Period also came to light. The analysis of finds from earlier seasons concentrated on wooden fragments, shabtis, funerary cones and cartonnages.
Authors:Y. González, G. Aragón, A. Benítez, and M. Prieto
Altitudinal gradients involve macroclimatic changes that can affect the diversity of several organisms. We tested the effects of elevation and small-scale variables on the diversity and composition of terricolous communities (lichens and bryophytes) in five páramos in southern Ecuador. The altitudinal range considered (from 2700 to 4000 m a.s.l.) is associated with changes in rainfall, temperature and irradiance. At each páramo, forty 40 x 40 cm2 sample plots were randomly selected in similar areas of vegetation (grass páramo) and conservation status. The presence/absence and cover of lichens and bryophytes were recorded in 200 sample plots. A total of 90 species (46 lichens and 44 bryophytes) were identified. Our results showed that total species richness, lichen and bryophyte richness, Simpson’s inverse and Shannon’s index were related to elevation and slope. Nevertheless, the response to elevation was dependent on the organism considered. Thus, meanwhile lichens had their maximum richness at the highest elevation (3930 m a.s.l.), bryophytes had a maximum peak at middle elevation (3300 m a.s.l.). Species composition also differed significantly among the five páramos, especially in bryophytes. We conclude that differences in the elevation of these páramos and small-scale variables such as slope significantly affect the diversity and composition of terricolous communities.