(Transylvanian), (Czecho) Slovakian (Upper Hungarian), Yugoslavian (Vojvodinian), Transcarpathian (Soviet Union), and Western (Western European, American, Australian) literature ( Németh, 2013 , p. 20). Historical framework (Czecho) Slovakian Hungarian literature
SME , 13 . 9 . 4 . Danglová , Oľga 2006a : Slovenský vidiek. Bariéry a perspektívy rozvoja [The Slovakian Countryside . Barriers and Perspectives for Development] . Ústav etnológie SAV , Bratislava . Danglová , Oľga 2006b : Lokálny
Folkloristic musical works played an essential role in the creation of a ‘Slovak idiom’ in classical music of the post-war period. From the simple arrangement of folk songs to a more autonomous art music (which may have been only partly influenced by folk traditions) there existed a broad spectrum of musical practices, including also film music and music for the professional ‘folk music ensembles’ that appeared after 1948. By referring to specific examples from this large body of music, I will show how composers worked with harmonic and poetic elements that were particular to folk music: my discussion of examples from the breadth of this music — including music for the film Zem spieva ([The land sings], music by F. Škvor), the ‘model’ compositions for the ensemble SĽUK (A. Moyzes) and, finally, the subjective folklorism of the avantgarde in the 1960s and 1970s — shows how Slovak composers worked under changing ideological influences to bring about an ‘ennobling’ of folk music.
This paper broadly compares environmentalism in Hungary and Slovakia, with a specific focus on Slovakia’s green movement under late-socialism and after. Nature activism in both countries was not directly controlled by the Party, and in each case individuals pushed the boundaries of activism and redefined notions of protest and dissent. But the way these two movements emerged were quite different from one another. In Hungary, the movement coalesced around a big “international” Soviet-style mega-project. This was the flashpoint. In Hungary, the Nagymaros dam project was an infringement — a monument of unhappy partnerships, and a symbol that fueled nationalist rumblings. In Slovakia, the whole notion of megaworks was not an unwelcome idea. But the differences between Hungarian and Slovak greens are more than the story of a dam controversy. While Hungary’s movement had its origins in the Danube River, Slovak greens emerged from the conservation of folk dwellings in the mountains. In Slovakia — the weekend amateur, the Catholic, the writer, the sociologist — instead found traction in the notion of human conservation. I explore these differences and examine how things change in the post-socialist period.
The paper deals with the transformation processes Czecho-Slovakia was undergoing at the very beginning of the 1990s and the way they were reflected in the language of the prominent nationwide newspapers, together with what their priority was given to. Attention is paid to how these changes were reflected and what processes and tendencies were involved in relation to the Soviet Union, the Soviet ideology, and the Soviet man.