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Macalady L. D., Smith S. K., Ranville F. J. Acid mine drainage; streambed sorption of copper, cadmium and zinc, Colorado Water Resources Research Institute, Completion Report , No. 154, 1990. Clement R. E., Eiceman G

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Debasish Das, M. Sureshkumar, Siddhartha Koley, Nidhi Mithal and C. Pillai

Abstract  

Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticle was synthesized using a solid state mechanochemical method and used for studying the sorption of uranium(VI) from aqueous solution onto the nanomaterial. The synthesized product is characterized using SEM, XRD and XPS. The particles were found to be largely agglomerated. XPS analysis showed that Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio of the product is 0.58. Sorption of uranium on the synthesized nanomaterials was studied as a function of various operational parameters such as pH, initial metal ion concentration, ionic strength and contact time. pH studies showed that uranium sorption on magnetite is maximum in neutral solution. Uranium sorption onto magnetite showed two step kinetics, an initial fast sorption completing in 4–6 h followed by a slow uptake extending to several days. XPS analysis of the nanoparticle after sorption of uranium showed presence of the reduced species U(IV) on the nanoparticle surface. Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio of the nanoparticle after uranium sorption was found to be 0.48, lower than the initial value indicating that some of the ferrous ion might be oxidized in the presence of uranium(VI). Uranium sorption studies were also conducted with effluent from ammonium diuranate precipitation process having a uranium concentration of about 4 ppm. 42% removal was observed during 6 h of equilibration.

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Abstract  

Sorption of Sr on five Slovak bentonites of deposits has been studied with the use of batch technique. In the experiments there have been used natural, chemically modified and irradiated samples, in three different kinds of grain size. The pH influence on sorption of strontium on bentonites, pH change after sorption and influence of competitive ions have been studied. Distribution ratios have been determined for bentonite–strontium solution system as a function of contact time, pH and sorbate concentration. The data have been interpreted in term of Langmuir isotherm. The uptake of Sr has been rapid and the sorption of strontium has increased by increasing pH. The percentage sorption has decreased with increasing metal concentrations. The pH value after sorption for the natrificated forms of bentonite starts already in the alkaline area and moves to the higher values. For the natural bentonites the values occur in the neutral or in the acidic area. Sorption of Sr has been suppressed by presence of competitive cations as follows: Ba2+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > NH4 + > K> Na+. By sorption on natrificated samples colloidal particles and pH value increase have been formed. The bentonite exposure as a result of interaction of γ-rays has led to expansion of the specific surface, increasing of the sorption capacity and to the change in the solubility of the clay materials.

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Abstract  

The paper presents the results of studies of phosphate anion sorption on various types of soil taken up from the Lublin Province (Poland). Anions belong to the group of ions witch undergo insignificant sorption according to the soil science. As follows from the studies anion sorption depends insignificantly on pH. Sorption isotherms can be described using the Freundlich equation. Sorption extent depends on concentration of iron ions and organic substances in the sample. Specific sorption (chemisorptions) plays the greatest role in the process under investigation.

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Abstract  

The sorption of copper on synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using a batch method and radiotracer technique. The hydroxyapatite sample prepared by a wet precipitation process was of high crystallinity with Ca/P ratio of 1.688. The sorption of copper on hydroxyapatite was pH independent ranging from 4 to 6 as a result of buffering properties of hydroxyapatite. The adsorption of copper was rapid and the percentage of Cu sorption was >98% during the first 15–30 min of the contact time. The experimental data for sorption of copper have been interpreted in the term of Langmuir isotherm. The sorption of Cu2+ ions was performed by ion-exchange with Ca2+ cations on the crystal surface of hydroxyapatite under experimental conditions. The competition effect of Zn2+, Fe2+ and Pb2+ towards Cu2+ sorption was stronger than that of Co2+, Ni2+ and Ca2+ ions. The ability of the bivalent cations to depress the sorption of copper on hydroxyapatite was in the following order Pb2+ > Fe2+ > Zn2+ > Co2+ ≈ Ni2+.

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Abstract  

Release of long-lived radioactivity to the aquatic bodies from various nuclear fuel cycle related operations is of great environmental concern in view of their possible migration into biosphere. This migration is significantly influenced by various factors such as pH, complexing ions present in aquatic environment and sorption of species involving radionuclides on the sediments around the water bodies. 241/243Am are two major radionuclides which can contribute a great deal to radioactivity for several thousand years. In the present study, 241Am sorption on natural sediment collected from site near a nuclear installation in India, has been investigated under the varying conditions of pH (3–10) and ionic strength [I = 0.01–1 M (NaClO4)]. The sorption of Am increased with pH of the aqueous medium [10% (pH 2) to ~100% (pH 10)], which was explained in terms of the increased negative surface charge on the sediment particles. There was marginal variation in Am(III) sorption with increased ionic strength (within error limits) of the aqueous medium suggesting inner-sphere complexation/sorption process. Sediment was characterized for its elemental composition and structural phases using Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Zeta-potential measurement at I = 0.1 M (NaClO4) suggested that Point of Zero Charge (pHPZC) was ~2, indicating the presence of silica as major component in the sediment. Kurabtov plot using sorption data as a function of pH at fixed I = 0.1 M (NaClO4) indicated the presence of multiple Am(III) species present on the surface. Potentiometric titration of the suspension indicated the presence of mineral oxide like behavior and assuming a generic nature (≡XOH) for all types of surface sites, protonation–deprotonation constants and total number of sites have been obtained. The sorption data has been modeled using 2-pK Diffuse Double Layer Surface Complexation Model (DDL-SCM). ≡XOAm2+ has been identified as the main species responsible for the sorption profile.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: J. Soriano-Rodríguez, V. Badillo-Almaraz, C. Alliot, F. Monroy-Guzmán and P. Vitorge

Abstract  

The sorption of Pd(II) on hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) has been studied at 25 °C as a function of pH, in 0.01 M NaClO4, and 0.01 and 0.025 M Ca(ClO4)2 aqueous background electrolytes and Pd(II) concentration (9.3 to 47 μM), trying to minimize some types of reactions, such as solid dissolution of and metal precipitation. The radiotracer palladium, 109Pd, obtained by neutron irradiation, has been used to calculate the palladium’s distribution coefficients K d between aqueous and solid phase. A mathematical treatment of results has been made by ion-exchange theory in order to interpret palladium sorption onto treated solid. For this, we take into account the existence of active sites at the hydroxyapatite surface, and the aqueous solution chemistry of palladium as well as the effect of phosphate anions from solid dissolution. The results can be explained as evidence of sorption of the species PdOH+, and of a mixed hydroxo complex of Pd2+ like (XCaO)–PdOH+·nH2O fixed onto {≡Ca–OH} surface sites of the hydroxyapatite.

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Abstract  

The sorption of strontium on synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using batch method and radiotracer technique. The hydroxyapatite samples were prepared by a wet precipitation process followed by calcination of calcium phosphate that precipitated from aqueous solution. Also, commercial hydroxyapatites were used. The sorption of strontium on hydroxyapatite depended on the method of preparation and it was pH independent ranging from 4 to 9 as a result of buffering properties of hydroxyapatite. The distribution coefficient K d was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of Sr2+ and Ca2+ ions in solution with concentration above 1 × 10−3 mol dm−3. The percentage strontium sorption for commercial and by wet method prepared hydroxyapatite was in the range of 83–96%, while calcined hydroxyapatite was ranging from 10 to 30%. The experimental data for sorption of strontium have been interpreted in the term of Langmuir isotherm. The sorption of Sr2+ ions was performed by ion-exchange with Ca2+ cations on the crystal surface of hydroxyapatite. Although calcined hydroxyapatite is successfully used as biomaterial for hard tissues repair, it is not used for the treatment of liquid wastes.

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Abstract  

The sorption of Co(II) on Na-attapulgite as a function of contact time, solid content, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, fulvic acid (FA) and temperature under ambient conditions was studied. The kinetic of Co(II) sorption on Na-attapulgite was described well by pseudo-second-order model. The sorption of Co(II) on Na-attapulgite was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. The sorption of Co(II) was mainly dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation and/or ion exchange at low pH, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation or surface precipitation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH values. The presence of FA did not affect Co(II) sorption obviously at pH <7, and a negative effect was observed at pH >7. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to simulate the sorption data at different temperatures, and the results indicated that the Langmuir model simulated the data better than the Freundlich isotherm model. The thermodynamic parameters (∆G°, ∆S°, ∆H°) calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms indicated that the sorption of Co(II) on Na-attapulgite was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The results suggest that the attapulgite sample is a suitable material in the preconcentration and solidification of radiocobalt from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

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Abstract  

Batch sorption experiments were performed to remove Eu(III) ions from aqueous solutions by using attapulgite under ambient conditions. Different experimental conditions, such as contact time, solid content, foreign ions, pH, ionic strength, fulvic acid and temperature, have been investigated to study their effect on the sorption property. The results indicated that the sorption of Eu(III) onto attapulgite was strongly dependent on pH, ionic strength and temperature. The sorption increased from about 8.9 to 90% at pH ranging from 2 to 6 in 0.01 mol/L NaNO3 solution. The Eu(III) kinetic sorption on attapulgite was fitted by the pseudo-second-order model better than by the pseudo-first-order model. The sorption of Eu(III) onto attapulgite increased with increasing temperature and decreasing ionic strength. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to simulate the sorption isotherms, and the results indicated that the Freundlich model simulated the data better than the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters (∆G o, ∆S o, ∆H o) were determined from the temperature dependent isotherms at 298.15, 318.15 and 338.15 K, and the results indicated that the sorption reaction was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The results suggest that the attapulgite is a suitable material as an adsorbent for preconcentration and immobilization of Eu(III) from aqueous solutions.

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