The paper reviews the commercial banking sector’s development during the booming years before the current global crisis in Southeast Europe. Based on the analysis of a comprehensive dataset, a common, simplified economic model could be outlined for this period, where GDP growth has been fuelled by rapid credit growth. The latter was boosted both by foreign funding and swift deposit growth volumes. Nevertheless, beside the favourable catch-up process, the level of external imbalances, credit growth and currency mismatches raised sustainability concerns and the risk of overheating.
Authors:P. Pétrequin, M. Errera, S. Cassen, E. Gauthier, D. Hovorka, L. Klassen, and A. Sheridan
): Ancient Mining and Metallurgy in SoutheastEurope: International Symposium Donji Milanovac, May 20–25 1990. Archaeological Institute, Museum of Mining and Metallurgy. Posebna izdanja 27. Beograd 1995, 69–76.
The research basis is provided by the project Povetry, Ethnicity, Gender in Transitional Societies implemented under the leadership of Professor Iván Szeláényi in six countries of he former Eastern block in 1999-2000. The data have confirmed the initial assumption of the study: new poverty is being born, which is not an element of the life cycle of the individual but rather a socio-economic dependence affecting entire groups of people. The socio-biological factors (age, gender, children) are not pushed away but are rather transformed by the new dominant. The new socio-economic context even reinforces their effect, especially in osme countries. A new, unexpected phenomenon is the formation of an age underclass in Southeast and Russia. All the countriessurveyed, except for Poland, exhibit symptoms of poverty feminization. The number of children in a family is a primordial factor bearing on the family budget. However, the stringest dependence is ethnicity-based. The poverty of Roma in Southeast Europe is catastrophic and separates them into an ethnic underclass. Roma people in Hungary are losers as well but their poverty has a different macro-economic backdrop. The differentia specifica of the research topic itself: it is not a static situation but a process in which reason and effect change places, a process that both shapes and is affected by the social structure. In parallel to the liberalization of economic initiative, powerful destructive processes are under way tear the old social connections apart and turn the social atatus of immense groups of people upside down. the former middle layers are layered further. The income below avarage is the common denominator for many of them (in Central Europe) or for the majority (southeast Europe and Russia), in contrast to the avarage income before. It could be foreseen that povetry will be irreversible for many and would entail declassation. This is already a fact for ethnic minorites in Southeast Europe and for elderly people there and in Russia. The further dynamics of the process could be traced at a new stage of the study.
The place of the Svodín type anthropomorphic vessels in the Neolithic of the Danube Basin
. The author carried out the typological analysis of the Neolithic and Early Copper Age anthropomorphic vessels of the Danube Basin on 70 complete or reconstructed items recovered from 53 sites and found analogues as far as Anatolia. He also determined the place of the “Svodín type” anthropomorphic vessels in the large group of anthropomorphic vessels of Central and Southeast Europe. A so-called threepartite “Schultergefäß” furnished with human traits (arms/hands, plastic breasts and plastic or painted facial parts) can be regarded as the archetype of the Svodín (Szőgyén, Slovakia) type anthropomorphic vessels. The vessels and the fragments that can be grouped in the type have been found on the territories of SW Slovakia and Lower Austria, at Aszód and Csabdi and also in larger numbers at a few sites of the Southern Transdanubian Lengyel culture, especially at Györe.The anthropomorphic vessels from Central and Southeast Europe entered into the database can morphologically be grouped into three forms (Gattung), eight series (Serien), 23 morphological groups and 42 versions. Basically, standing (72.3 %), sitting/enthroned (22.3 %) and hollow-pedestalled (5.2 %) vessel shapes can be differentiated. According to the analyses, vessel shapes that appeared only in the early or the middle or the late phase or only in the Aeneolithic and transitional shapes can be differentiated. The author also examines the meaning of the discussed anthropomorphic vessels, to what purpose they were made, based first of all on the finding circumstances.All the “Svodín-type” anthropomorphic vessels characteristic of the eastern occupation zone of the late Neolithic Lengyel culture came from the early phase of the culture. It could be observed that the figural plastic representations of the Lengyel culture show many similar traits to those of the Tisza culture in the Alföld, which is not surprising since the two cultures even shared a few sites on the territory of Northern Hungary.Regarding the anthropomorphic vessels, regional divergences can be discovered in the early Neolithic of Southeast Europe, which divergences increased in the subsequent periods and differences appeared between cultures and also between the individual sites.
: Herausg. Andreas HELLER, Therese WEBER & Oliva WIEBEL-FANDERL, Wien & Köln.
Herausg. Andreas HELLER
ROTH, Klaus 1994: Time, Folk Culture and Post-Socialist Ethnology in SoutheastEurope. Tiden och historien i 1990-talets
Rights in the Hungarian Legal Order’ in Hasani , E. , Paczolay , P. and Riegner , R. (eds), Constitutional Justice in SoutheastEurope: Constitutional Courts in Kosovo, Serbia, Albania and Hungary between Ordinary Judiciaries and the European