This article looks at
Soviet policy toward Eastern Europe in 1953-1956, prior to the start of the
Hungarian revolution. It shows that the leadership succession struggle in
Moscow often caused sharp, and undesirable, fluctuations in Soviet relations
with Hungary and the other East European countries. Abrupt shifts in Soviet
policy, stemming mainly from internal political maneuvering, helped to produce
a volatile situation in both Hungary and Poland in 1956. Soviet leaders were so
preoccupied by domestic concerns that they failed to take timely action to cope
with the deepening instability in Hungary and Poland. By the time events came
to a head in October 1956, the Soviet Union was faced with the prospect of the
collapse of Communist rule in Hungary.
pointed that the SovietUnion was also the scene of both pioneering and progressive initiatives in, e.g. launching research on the law’s logical and linguistic aspects and a Marxising re-foundation of legal axiologism. See, e.g. in result of the debate on
The advanced materials studied were those composites based on ceramic, boron, carbon and aramid fibres. Research level was quantified by a bibliometric analysis of publications including a study of citations, an analysis of patents, a professional assessment of Soviet work by reviewing the open literature and by discussing with scientists and engineers in the former Soviet Union. The conclusion drawn was that the level of research in the former USSR did not match that in the West. There were, however, several niche areas were the level of research was comparable or in advance of the West, notably aramid fibres.
The article analyses the development of Crimean studies from the end of the 18th century until today. It is only after the Russian annexation of the Crimea that the scholars started seriously studying the Crimean peninsula, its history, ethnography, geography, and other disciplines. At the end of the 18th and early 19th centuries the historico-ethnographic information was collected largely by state officials and travelling scientists of non-Russian origin. In the first half of the 19th century the Crimea was already studied by professional ethnographers and historians; it is in this period that the museums of antiquities were established in Kerch and Theodosia. A major wave of interest in the Crimea in Russia and in Europe took place as a consequence of the Crimean war in the 1850s. In the second half of the 19th century the Crimea continued to be studied by professional scholars; a special organisation TUAK was established to control the state of the Crimean antiquities. The study of the Crimea by Soviet scholars folded in the 1930s with the Stalinist purges of “bourgeois nationalists” in science. The period of the 1930s–1980s was characterised by stagnation in Crimean studies. The renaissance of the study of the Crimea began at the end of the 1980s; it coincides with the breakup of the Soviet Union and the establishment of the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea in 1991.
From an analysis of bibliographic data on 430 journal articles on liquid crystals covered inPhysics Abstracts 1976 and the 4729 citations to them up to the end of 1987, we have identified the geographic origin, the prominent institutions, language and journal-wise distribution of the papers, the citedness of these papers, and the distribution of citations as a time series for the highly cited papers. We have also analysed the 126 papers published by authors from India, Canada, Australia, Israel, Japan and the United Kingdom and covered inPhysics Abstracts 1978, and the 1154 citations to them up to 1987. Unlike in most other high tech areas of physics, in LC research the difference in performance between the USA and the other leading countries is not very pronounced. Publication data from 1976, 1978 and 1985 reveal that LC literature is on the rise and that the percentage share of the Soviet Union is rising fast and that of the USA is on the decline.
The paper deals with the transformation processes Czecho-Slovakia was undergoing at the very beginning of the 1990s and the way they were reflected in the language of the prominent nationwide newspapers, together with what their priority was given to. Attention is paid to how these changes were reflected and what processes and tendencies were involved in relation to the Soviet Union, the Soviet ideology, and the Soviet man.
Two population tables, which were to have accompanied my article in the pre- vious issue of Hungarian Studies (14/2 , 275–284), were inadvertently omitted. They are published here as an appendix to that text. Tables 1 and 2 provide an overview of the evolution of the ethnic composition of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania since the interwar era. They indicate a notable divergence in demographic trends in Lithuania in comparison with the other two Baltic states. Despite suffering the same kinds of population losses in World War II and under Stalinism as the Estonians and Latvians, the Lithuanians displayed a strong demographic dynamism, based on higher birth rates, and maintained a re- markably stable share of the total population of their country. On the other hand, demographic growth in Estonia and Latvia had already slowed considerably by the interwar period, and the native population in those two countries was much less able to withstand the disasters of the 1940s. It is striking that in 1989 there were fewer Estonians in Estonia and Latvians in Latvia than in the 1930s. It is also noteworthy that the number of ethnic Russians in Latvia throughout the Soviet era was more than double the combined corresponding figure for Estonia and Lithua- nia, a phenomenon that reflected Riga™s attractiveness and size as the one true metropolis in the Baltic states.