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. and Marks, B. J. 1995. FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Quantifying Landscape Structure . Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-351. Portland, OR. Merot, Ph., Squividant, H., Aurousseau, P., Hefting, M

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. Gunatilleke, N. Gunatilleke, S.P. Hubbell, R.B. Foster, A. Itoh, J.V. LaFrankie, H. Seng-Lee, E. Losos, N. Manokaran, R. Sukumar and T. Yamakura. 2000. Spatial patterns in the distribution of tropical tree species. Science 288: 1414

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Shaw, M.W. 1995. Simulation of population expansion and spatial pattern when individual dispersal distributions do not decline exponentially with distance. Proc. Royal Soc. London Series B 259:253-248. Simulation of

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Parasitologia, Ecologia e Genética. La Laguna. Canary Islands. Arévalo, J. R. and J. M. Fernández-Palacios. 2003. Spatial patterns of trees and juveniles in a Laurel forest of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Plant Ecol. 165: 1

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): Exploring Spatial Patterns and Hotspots of Diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand . International Journal of Health Geographic , 8 ( 1 ): 36 . Förster , M. – Jesuit , D. – Smeeding , T

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Schooley, R. L. and Wiens, J. A. 2003. Spatial patterns, density dependence, and demography in the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex rugosus , in semiarid grasslands. J. Arid Environ. 53: 183–196. Wiens J. A

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L. Mucina. 1998. Compositional diversity and fine-scale spatial patterns of dolomite grasslands on contrasting slopes. In: Csontos, P. (ed.), Sziklagyepek szünbotanikai kutatása. Zólyomi Bálint professzor emlékének. Scientia Kiadó, Budapest. pp. 159

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In our present study we aimed to recognize the temporal and spatial patterns of Noctuinae communities (Lep.Noctuidae)of four differently managed apple orchards laying in different localities of Hungary.Data were obtained by light trap collection. The quantitative data resulting from our investigations were analyzed by multivariate methods and were also analyzed by their diversity characteristics.As a result connections were found regarding the diversities of species and individuals,the patterns of occurrence and phenological properties.The studies were based on 8497 individuals of 39 species.

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biology of ferns. In: A.F. Dyer (ed.), The Experimental Biology of Ferns . Academic Press London. pp. 133–170. KrÍzsik, V., I. Pinter, Á. Major and G. Vida. 2007. Spatial pattern of individual genetic similarities in

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The spatial distribution of living trees of different size-classes was examined on two sites with different fire histories in a mature Pinus sylvestris L. dominated forest in eastern Finland. The study area was a 4-ha square plot, which was divided into two parts based on fire history analysis. In one part, the last fire event was a stand-replacing fire in the early 19thcentury, after which the whole stand regenerated, while the other part of the study plot was subsequently burnt by a surface fire in 1906. For the analyses, the trees were divided into five height-classes, reflecting competitive hierarchy. Spatial patterns of different tree height-classes were analysed using formulae for spatial autocorrelation with categorical data. In both areas, saplings showed an aggregated and overstorey trees a random spatial pattern at all scales studied. The other tree height-classes showed aggregated or random spatial patterns depending on the area and distance class. Generally, similar tree height-classes tended to be randomly or positively associated (attraction), except for the co-dominant and dominant, and overstorey trees, which were negatively associated (repulsion). The results suggest that the three dimensional spatial organization of the tree population was likely driven by two main interacting processes: (1) Low severity disturbances such as surface fires and treefalls, which create favourable regeneration patches, leading to positive association in smaller tree height-classes and (2) strong neighborhood competition among the largest trees and the competitive effect of these large trees on the small understorey trees, leading to negative association among these components of the tree population. The results also indicate that canopy replacement by trees currently in the understorey is unlikely to occur without a sufficient opening in the forest.

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