Neumen zeigen in ihrer Differenzierung die Hervorhebung und Betonung einzelner Silben oder Wörter und damit deren Bedeutung an als Kunst einer gehobenen Rede. Sie vermitteln daher primär Rhythmus, Agogik, Dynamik, Satz- und Sinnzusammenhänge, mit einem Wort: aufführungspraktische Anweisungen. Die Beispiele zeigen, wie gerade Einzeltonneumen, also Virga und Tractulus, in der Tradition deutscher Notation mit wenigen Differenzierungen auf einen diffizilen Sinnhorizont verweisen können. Die Einzeltonneume mit einem mittleren Silbenwert wird rhythmisch mehrwertig durch Hinzufügung eines Episems oder eines Zusatzbuchstabens. Die Funktion dieses Mehrwerts ist Gegenstand der folgenden Analysen.
Balther of Säckingen was a remarkable scholar, writer and composer, who was born about 930, made bishop of Speyer in 970, and died in 986 or 987. Educated at the famous monastery in St. Gallen, he went as a wandering student in search of learning as far as North Spain. He had a special veneration for St Fridolin, founder of a convent in Säckingen. On his travels Balther found a copy of a Life of St Fridolin, memorized it, wrote it down on his return home, composed chants to be sung on the feast day of the saint, and sent both the Life (vita) and the chants (historia) to one of his former teachers at St. Gallen for approval. Balther says he composed them “per musicam artem”, “according to the art of music”. This paper tells how Balther’s chants came to be composed and compares them with others in order to understand what was considered to be “musical art” around 970.
Authors:T. W. Eschholz, R. Peter, P. Stamp, and A. Hund
Genetic variation in the flint maize (Zea mays L. conv. indurata) gene pool has decreased significantly since the introduction of hybrid breeding into Europe in the 1950s, leading to greater genetic vulnerability. Landraces, stored in gene banks, offer a valuable source to broaden the genetic basis again. The objective of this study was the genetic characterization of 166 Swiss landrace accessions originating from 7 Swiss regions (alpine valleys). The material was fingerprinted using a set of ten SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeat Markers). The resulting cladogram showed three main clusters comprising 95, 22 and 49 accessions, respectively. The largest group of accessions, from the Rhine valley of St. Gallen (RT), was present in all three main clusters. However, the majority of RT accessions was found in the first main cluster, together with those from the western neighbouring region (Linthtal) and from the southwestern neighbouring region (Wallis). Those from Tessin (southern Switzerland) were found mainly in one sub-cluster within the third main cluster. This is a very encouraging first step in appraising the genetic differences among accessions from Swiss regions.
Authors:Sarah Lo Russo, Regula Ackermann, Hannes Flück, and Markus Peter
During rescue excavations carried out near the vicus at Kempraten (municipality of Rapperswil-Jona, St. Gallen, Switzerland) in advance of a private construction project, a Mithraeum measuring approximately 8 by 10 m was unexpectedly discovered in the summer of 2015 and subsequently excavated and investigated in detail. This paper presents the preliminary results of the excavation, which was completed less than a year ago, and pays particular attention to the interdisciplinary approach used in the excavation. These included intense sampling of the features for the purposes of micromorphology and archaeobiology. Three construction phases with intermittent conflagrations were identified. The question as to whether there was an ante-chamber remains unanswered. The external areas are also quite difficult to interpret, at least for the time being. The rich assemblage of finds, which included numerous coins, pottery, animal bones and a range of religious artefacts (e.g. altars and a half relief), will only be dealt with in a cursory manner here. According to the range of coins, the Mithraeum undoubtedly dated from the late 3rd to the late 4th or early 5th centuries. The site will be analysed by an interdisciplinary team and preliminary work is already underway.
During rescue excavations between 2009 and 2013 carried out at the periphery of the vicus at Kempraten (municipality of Rapperswil-Jona, St. Gallen, Switzerland) a Gallo-Roman sanctuary, dating from the second quarter of the 2nd to the end of the 3rd century AD, was unearthed. The excavation included intense sampling for geoarchaeology and archaeobiology, which prompted the Archaeology Department of Canton St. Gall (KASG) to launch an interdisciplinary project. Four curse tablets attest to the cult of Magna Mater in the sanctuary at Kempraten.
This paper presents the first results of the interdisciplinary study and compares them to the Magna Mater sanctuary at Mainz (Germany), focusing on 1. the layout of the sanctuary, 2. sacrificing, 3. feastings and 4. cursing. The comparison between both sites showed that there was no strict setting of rituals in the cult of Magna Mater, but the importance of cursing and of burnt sacrifices is characteristic for both sites. Summing up: The temple precinct at Kempraten had a specific setting, which showed on one hand local and regional influences, for instance in terms of the temple architecture and the choice of food offerings. On the other hand, distinct differences between the Kempraten sanctuary and local Gallo-Roman sanctuaries can be observed, for instance in relation to cursing, the composition and the importance of the burnt offerings.
The conflicting assignments between modes 3 and 8 is found not only among sources, but also within a single source through erasures and revisions in different hands. Here the modal assignments of office antiphons are examined through a comparison of the sources of the monasteries in the region of Lake Constance. They are from the monasteries of Einsiedeln, St. Gallen, Rheinau, Weingarten, and Zwiefalten. For a singer, the most important matter in singing antiphons was not to end the melody on a specific note, but to select a suitable reciting tone. At a time in which musicians classified antiphons into several “differentia” groups, what characterizes each differentia group is surely the melodic incipit and the psalm tone. But over the course of time, medieval musicians became to consider the concept of mode, that is, the classification by the final note and range, and at that time the ending of the antiphon gained in importance. This change of thinking gave rise to the modal conflicting assignments.