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The processes of stand structure and yield formation of spring barley were studied under different weather conditions and crop management. The multifactorial small-plot trials focused on the combined effect of variety, sowing density and nitrogen nutrition were carried out in two years with contrast weather conditions for yield formation (2011 and 2013). Evaluation of the above-ground biomass and the segmentation of tillers into three groups was conducted in four growth stages (BBCH 25, 31, 39 and 75). The performed analyses confirmed that for effective use of inputs and high yield, it is important to create a sufficient number of strong tillers at the beginning of vegetation. In year with low proportion of strong tillers at the end of tillering (2013), the differentiation of tillers is delayed and their productivity decreases. In this year therefore, yield formation is shifted from the number of spikes to the number of grains in a spike. The comparison of barley genotypes revealed that high yield plasticity can be obtained especially in the variety Bojos, which is able to compensate effectively the changes in spike number by increased grain number in a spike. This variety is also able to create a high proportion of strong tillers even under unfavourable conditions. This knowledge could help to improve the breeding and management strategy in spring barley for the expected weather conditions in the near future, especially higher temperatures in early spring.

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We used multivariate analysis to model boreal forest stand structure and dynamics at Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba based on data from 202 sampled stands. Eight forest stand-types were recognized based on canopy composition: black spruce on peat substrates, jack pine - black spruce, bur oak, eastern deciduous (green ash - American elm - Manitoba maple), balsam fir, trembling aspen - paper birch - mountain maple, trembling aspen - balsam poplar, and white spruce. The first four stand-types occur in edaphically distinct environments, while the four remaining boreal mixedwood stand-types occur in edaphically similar environments. We found that the composition and abundance of advance regeneration were best predicted by current canopy composition (redundancy = 54.4%); this reflects both the limited dispersal of conifer seeds and the strong vegetative reproductive capacity of hardwoods. Biotically-controlled site factors such as bareground, herb and shrub cover, ungulate browsing intensity, and stand age were also reasonably good predictors f advance regeneration (redundancy = 31.7%). Edaphic variables such as soil pH, conductivity, particle size, organic horizon depth and slope proved to be poor predictors of advance regeneration, however (redundancy = 18.1%). Size-class ordination indicated that many stand-types have relatively short successional trajectories, suggesting limited change in forest canopy composition over time. There are two exceptions: in the jack pine - black spruce stand-type, black spruce will increase over time, and in the trembling aspen - paper birch - mountain maple stand-type, eastern deciduous species (green ash, American elm, Manitoba maple, and bur oak) are forecast to become increasingly dominant. We also describe a synoptic model of mixedwood boreal forest stand dynamics for the Riding Mountain area. The model includes a number of factors that we consider to be critical determinants of forest dynamics, such as seed source availability, small and large-scale disturbances, species life-history characteristics, and environmental gradients. Our succession model is more similar those described for eastern than western Canada, which may reflect the lower frequency of catastrophic fires in the Riding Mountain area compared to boreal forests further west. Our model emphasizes that successional trajectories do not converge towards a single self-perpetuating "climax". Instead, successional vectors may diverge, converge or remain cyclical, and multiple potential pathways are possible for each stand-type. Our results also illustrate that species assemblages, and the propensity for canopy change in the absence of fire, are governed by the cumulative and synergistic effects of climate, topography, disturbance frequency, size and intensity, edaphic conditions, and the proximity of parental seed sources. Fire suppression in the southern boreal forest has resulted in a paradigm shift in disturbance regime, from large, synchronous catastrophic fires to small-scale, asynchronous gap formation. A major challenge for boreal forest ecologists is to determine the long-term consequences of this paradigm shift on the composition, structure and health of boreal forest stands and landscapes.

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Different types of forest use significantly changed the structure and species composition of European temperate forests. Herbaceous species and seedlings are important parts of the forest ecosystem, thus it is necessary to understand the effects of stand characteristics on the species composition of the understory. In our study we assessed the main factors that affect the species composition of herb and tree seedling assemblages in Quercus petraea and Q. cerris dominated stands (age 50–150 years) in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary. The relationship between the studied assemblages and explanatory variables (tree species composition, stand structure, canopy closure and topography) were explored by Redundancy Analysis (RDA). The occurrence of herbaceous species was affected by canopy closure, stand structure (mean DBH and DBHcv of trees), topography and the density and diversity of shrub layers. Oak forest species were associated with more open stands with sparsely distributed large trees, while mesic forest species were positively associated with heterogeneous stand structure, low shrub density, and western exposure. Seedlings of trees and shrubs showed a dispersal limited phenomenon. The composition of seedlings was significantly influenced by the mean DBH of trees, the structural heterogeneity of the overstory, the tree species diversity and the density of shrub layers. However the seedlings of both dominant oak species required the same stand structure, sessile oak was able to regenerate almost exclusively in those stands where it was dominant in the overstory, which is significant for the management of the species. Generally, forest management affects species composition and structure of the overstory, accordingly it had direct and indirect effects on the understory community as well.

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The effects of stand structure, tree species composition, proportion of habitat types and land use history on breeding bird assemblages in temperate mixed forests in Western Hungary were studied. The species richness, the abundance and the composition of the whole breeding bird assemblage and of some groups formed on the basis of nesting site and rarity were examined. Stand structural variables had the highest impact on the breeding bird assemblage, while tree species composition, the varying proportion of vegetation types and land use history had no significant effect. In the case of the species richness, the abundance and the composition of the whole assemblage, the most important variables were the mean diameter of trees, the vegetation cover of the forest floor and the dead wood volume. The explained variance in the linear models of different groups varied between 20% and 60%, and the relative importance of these three variables also differed considerably. These results indicate that forest management may considerably influence the diversity and the composition of birds, as all the structural elements affecting birds deeply depend on it. Within the shelterwood management system, the elongation of the rotation and regeneration periods, and the relatively high proportion of retention tree groups after harvest could contribute to the conservation of forest birds. Our results also showed that for the forest bird communities, both the prevalence of big trees and the presence of a dense understory layer are important. Management regimes which apply continuous forest cover might be more appropriate for providing these structural elements simultaneously on small spatial scales, and for the maintenance of a more diverse bird community, thus healthier forest ecosystems.

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Anderson, M.C. 1966. Stand structure and light penetration II. A theoretical analysis. J. App. Ecol. 3: 41–54. Anderson M.C. Stand structure and light penetration II. A theoretical

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Dry oak forests have one of the richest understory vegetation in Europe, but the environmental drivers of this community have been scarcely revealed. In this study, we assessed whether the amount of light, soil pH or stand heterogeneity affect primarily the species composition of this community. We investigaed 332 sampling plots in 40-165 year old managed and abandoned Quercus cerris and Q. petraea dominated forests in North Hungary. Presence-absence data of herbaceous species and seedlings of woody species were recorded in 28 subplots within each sampling plot. Stand structure, canopy openness and soil pH were also measured in each plot. The relationships between stand characteristics and the species assemblage were explored by redundancy analysis, while the individual responses of species and species groups were studied by generalized linear mixed models. Multivariate methods and individual species response analyses provided similar results, the amount of light and soil pH were equally important variables (both of them explained 2.8% of species variance), while stand heterogeneity had a bit lower, albeit still significant role in determining understory species composition (1.9% of species variance explained). Seedlings of woody species preferred shaded (half-shaded) conditions, while many herbaceous species were positively related to light. The effect of the three explanatory variables was hard to separate, since they influenced each other as well. Sessile oak seedlings and herbs typical of dry forests, forest edges, grasslands and acidic soil habitats preferred light rich habitats with homogeneous stand structure and low soil pH. Mesic forest herbs and seedlings of other woody species were related to relatively high soil pH, heterogeneous stand structure and closed canopy. These two understory types were clearly separated regarding composition. This study emphasizes the importance of heterogenous light conditions and mosaic, diverse forest structure (presence of homogeneous and heterogeneous forest patches) during forest management for the maintenance of understory biodiversity.

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Both local and regional factors determine local species richness. We investigated the relative role of local (13 soil and tree stand structure variables) and regional factors (19 climate, land cover and geographic location variables) in determining the richness of several vascular plant functional groups in indigenous forest fragments in southeastern New Zealand. The predictor variables explaining the largest fraction of the variation in species richness were identified using a backward and forward stepwise procedure, with adjustments for the number of variables and testing for multicollinearity. The total proportion of variation explained by local and regional factors was highest for tree species richness (54.1%) and lowest for herbaceous species richness (28.2%). We found differences between the functional groups in the extent to which species richness was explained by local vs. regional factors, but both showed some ability to explain the species richness of all functional groups. The abundance of the strongly competitive tree species Nothofagus menziesii (silver beech) had a strong negative effect on total, tree and herb species richness, but it had only minor effects on woody and fern species richness. Once the effect of this local variable was accounted for, the remaining variation in tree and woody species richness was mainly explained by regional variables. Herbaceous and fern species richness, on the other hand, was strongly correlated with local as well as regional variables. We emphasize the importance of using a fixed plot size when the relative effects of local and regional factors on patterns of species richness are to be compared and evaluated.

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Markus, N. and S. Franz. 2001. The significance of different indices for stand structure and diversity in forests. Forest Ecology and Management 145:91-106. The significance of different indices for stand structure and

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-koncentráció hatása növényközösségek összetételére, szerkezetére és produkciójára. (The effect of elevated CO 2 on the botanical composition, stand structure, and biomass production of plant communities.) Bot. Közlem. , 92 , 189

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) Studia Bot. Hung 9 87 96 Berger, A. C. and K. J. Puettmann. 2000. Overstory composition and stand structure

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