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The present article examines the concept of a malicious fatum as evolved by the narrator of Lucan's Bellum civile and especially the subjective attitudes adopted by the protagonists Caesar, Pompey and Cato towards this destructive force. Since Lucan's fatum is not benevolent but malicious and hence contrary to the Stoic doctrine, the ethical value of the protagonists is not measured by their readiness to follow fate (as Stoics would have done), but by the degree of their intellectual resistance to fate: Caesar follows fate unhesitatingly; Pompey sometimes seems to believe, mistakenly, in its benevolence, but in crucial and decisive situations he recognizes its malignity; Cato is the only one who, from the very beginning, internalizes the intrinsic moral corruption of fate. The last section in this article deals with a totally different concept of fate, which is recognizeable in some passages of the tenth book of Bellum civile.

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The present paper examines the crucial passages in Lucanus, Valerius Flaccus, Statius and Sily concerning suicide. Lucanus presents a fanatical eulogy of suicide, Valerius Flaccus a rather calculated approach which is guided by almost philosophical considerations resembling those given by the philosopher Seneca, Statius focuses on the problem of self determination and tyranny. Sily’s account of the Saguntine suicide combines and modifies different elements of the literary tradition, which sometimes makes it difficult to ascertain the value judgement his narrative is meant to convey to his readers.

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The Rhodian Panaetius, the path-breaker exponent of the middle period of Stoic philosophy, developed his theory to justify the legitimacy of the Roman Empire before the conquered people in the second half of the second century B.C. The essence of the conception is the following: the rule of a state over another is righteous, if their relationship also serves the interest of the subject country, and this is possible if the ruling state is superior, and makes the subjugated better, governs it more adequate as if it would rule itself. The historian Polybius, who wrote about Rome’s becoming the most powerful empire of the world, knew Panaetius, they were both friends of Scipio Aemilianus, and we even know that they often discussed political questions. Even so the theory of the Rhodian philosopher does not seem to be present in the fragmentary work of Polybius — at least not coherently propounded. The thorough inquiry shows nevertheless that all substantial elements of the theory can be found in Polybius’ work. Firstly he considers justice as an objective notion (nature instructs us on it), asserts the good to coincide with the expedient, and the real expediency to differ from the seeming one: accordingly he can judge the states from an absolute point of view like the Stoics. Secondly he holds the Romans superior to the other nations with regard to their polity, military abilities and all the virtues. Thirdly he esteems the Roman governance as expedient also for the subjects and therefore worth opting for and praising, because Rome makes the citizens of the subjugated countries more temperate, religious, ingenuous, and brings peace, order and rightfulness to their public life. As the most important elements of Panaetius’ theory occur, we can assess that Polybius saw the relationship of Rome and the subject countries according to the conception of Panaetius.

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://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Uf_Uugt1mR8#t=16s SIPRI (2011): Background Paper on SIPRI Military Expenditure Data . Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Press background material, 2011. 04. 11. STOA-Rep (1999

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Considering existing classic and contemporary proposals for preventing online addiction problems: Some old recipes for new problems

Commentary on: Problematic risk-taking involving emerging technologies: A stakeholder framework to minimize harms (Swanton et al., 2019)

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Author: Olatz Lopez-Fernandez

—Panel for the future of science and technological, science and technological options assessment (STOA) . In Proceedings of the directorate for impact assessment and European added value, directorate-general for parliamentary research services, European

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Considering existing classic and contemporary proposals for preventing online addiction problems: Some old recipes for new problems. •

Commentary on: Problematic risk-taking involving emerging technologies: A stakeholder framework to minimize harms (Swanton et al., 2019)

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Author: Olatz Lopez-Fernandez

—Panel for the future of science and technological, science and technological options assessment (STOA) . In Proceedings of the directorate for impact assessment and European added value, directorate-general for parliamentary research services, European

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reference to the (sub)tropics for use in vocational training: Information, Practicals . STOAS . Wageningen . W hite , P. J. , B radshaw , J. E. , D ale , M. F. B. , R amsay , G

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limitrofe nell’antichità e nell’alto medioevo (a cura di D. Gabler-F. Redő) . L’Aquila 2008 , 133 – 177 H ayes 1973 J. W. H ayes . : The Roman Pottery from the South Stoa at Corinth . Hesperia 42 ( 1973 ) 416 – 470 H ayes 1983 J. W. H

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Citation Index to Cybermetrics , s.l. , Scarecrow Press , 2009 . [4] European Parliament , Precision Agriculture and the Future of Farming in Europe , Brussels , Scientific Foresight Study (STOA) , 2016 . [5] F. Pallottino , M. Biocca , P

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-germanischen Keramik 10. Bonn 1990, 86. 7 Schindler–Scheffenegger 1977, 147. 8 Schindler-Kaudelka Et Al . 2001, 177. 9 Ibidem , Taf. 72, Sb 27. 10 Schindler–Scheffenegger 1977, Taf. 58.4, 6, 10. 11 J. W. Hayes: Roman pottery from the South Stoa at Corinth. Hesperia 43

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