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Emlékszerűség és egyöntetűség. Hauszmann, Stróbl, Lotz és a budapesti Igazságügyi palota központi csarnoka

Monumentalness and homogeneity Hauszmann, Stróbl, Lotz and the central hall of the Budapest Palace of Justice

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
János Jernyei Kiss

The Palace of Justice opened in 1896 is among the country’s most important public buildings; its central hall is one of the most grandiose spaces of late historicism in size and decoration. A year after its inauguration Alajos Hauszmann, the architect, summed up the construction history and programme of the building, and the work appeared in ornate folio edition in 1901. the architect designed the central hall in the style of Rome’s baroque architecture reviving the spirit of antiquity, and also drew on the tradition of the space type of salles des pas perdus. As regards space forms and structures, its relatives are the halls of the palaces of justice in paris, Antwerp and Strasbourg.

The placing of the Justitia statue dominating the space was probably inspired by the central hall of Vienna’s Justizpalast and is permeated with the memory of antique temple interiors abounding in giant cultic statues. With its hieratic character, Stróbl’s statue reminds us of classical Rome’s enthroned Minerva and Dea Roma statues, the modelling of the dress and mantle imitating the Hellenistic and Roman baroque drapery styles.

The 19th century reconstructions of the rich mosaic and sculptural decorations of the spaces, walls and vaults of the Roman baths must have fertilized Hauszmann’s imagination and inspired him to envision the colouring and gilding of the surfaces and painted decoration of the ceiling, although the latter was also influenced by Roman baroque fresco painting. Károly Lotz designed the illusory architecture of the ceiling painting after Andrea del Pozzo by taking care to align the painted architectonic details with the framing mouldings and ornaments.

A cardinal element of the architectural program was the deliberately monumental effect and “homogeneity” of which – in Hauszmann’s view – fine arts were the “precondition and the instruments”. He himself chose the painter and sculptor for the decoration of the hall, because he deemed it important to give them “direction” and “enlightenment” through his personal influence to achieve a “homogeneously harmonious creation”. As a result, both the sculptor’s and the painter’s adaptation to Roman models and to the grandiosity of the formal idiom and dimensions of the hall can be perceived.

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Két sírkápolna a történelmi Veszprémi Egyházmegyében: Békás és Szőlőskislak – Ybl Miklós és Ágoston József Művei

Two sepulchral chapels in the historical Veszprém diocese: Békás and Szőlőskislak – works by Miklós Ybl and József ágoston

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Endre Prakfalvi

The research was triggered off by the documentation of the building history of the mausoleum of the Brüll family in the neolog Jewish cemetery in Kozma street, Budapest. The revived antique, in ante temple style mausoleum erected over a crypt was completed in 1902 as the joint work of architect Kálmán Gerster and sculptor Alajos Stróbl. The interior of the cell is adorned with a fine floral mosaic composition (cartoon by Ferenc Lohr).

At Békás in Veszprém county the sepulchral monument of the founder of the Society of Hungarian Engineers and Architects was unveiled in the Békássy–Hollán mausoleum in 1903. The periodical Művészet reported that the frescoes were painted by Dezső Kölber after cartoons by Károly Lotz. Documents in the Archives of the Veszprém Archiepiscopacy and Collegiate Chapter reveal that the chapel built in revival gothic style was consecrated on the day of the Sacred Name of the Virgin, on 12 September 1869, so that masses could be celebrated for the salvation of the departed souls. The church demanded that the builders provide guarantees for the survival of the chapel “until the end of time”. The architect’s name is not put down, but the article of 1903 expressly names Ybl as the planner of the funerary chapel, which has not been listed in his oeuvre so far.

During an assessment of art historical values we came across the ruins of the Ágoston–Kacskovics family’s mausoleum on the edge of Balatonboglár, in Szőlőskislak. Until 1993 the diocese of Veszprém also included Somogy County. The remains of the archaizing building displays several remarkable elements. One is the set of wall-lining bricks stamped with the initials LNJ, which are undoubtedly from the brick-yard of the architect Ödön Lechner’s family in Kőbánya. The other is a glazed, ribbed-surface ornamental brick type arranged around the red triangular limestone symbolizing the eye of God in the pediment. Earlier, this brick type was known on the St. Ladislaus church in Kőbánya and the façades of the Museum of Applied Arts (1896) both planned by Lechner. The floor pavers – produced by Wienerberger – were acquired in Vienna. It is again the obligation for maintenance in good condition that accounts for ample documents kept in the Archiepiscopal Library, which reveal that the crypt was consecrated in 1883, the chapel in 1884, on the feast day of Saint Ignatius Loyola. The erection of the chapel might have been related in connection with the re-burial here of landowner Ignácz Kacskovics, lord lieutenant of the county (and maybe with the change of the manorial centre). The use of the Lechner “design” bricks here precedes the well-known examples by a decade. The building was designed by József Áoston of Kisjóka, who qualified as an engineer from the Technical University of Budapest in 1875.

In the central cemetery of Pécs there are two similar historicizing family mausoleums close to each other. The classicizing monuments also displaying motifs of the Jugendstil were built in 1909 (and later?) from the terracotta elements of the Zsolnay Factory of Pécs. The mausoleum of the Nagy family who played an important role in the life of the city is still privately owned. The other one underwent a strange metamorphosis in 1963, as it was not redeemed again. The party committee of the city decided to convert it into a labour movement pantheon, and had the cross surrounded by palm branches in the pediment replaced by the red star. (The classicist character suited the socialist realist ideal of the fifties.) Their conservation in their current form is justified.

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