A network of weigh-in-motion sites has been implemented in Hungary in 1996. Measured data series provide an opportunity for analyzing axle load variation trends in recent years. Both axle loads and total weights of goods vehicles show an increasing tendency. Proportions of heavy vehicle categories have changed, too. According to the observed trends new design load classes were incorporated into the design guide a few years ago. A pavement strengthening program has been started on TEN-T and E-roads in order to comply with the EU 11.5 ton axle weight limit. Realistic axle load spectra and trends have been considered in the structural design of pavements.
Authors:Silvia Rominu, Oana Ionita, and Radu Bancila
The concept of structures reliability conditions besides safety also must provide adequate durability and service life. According to EN 1990 reliability should be considered as its ability to fulfil the specific requirements, including the designed working (service) life. The structure and structural members should be designed executed and maintained in such a way that during their intended life, with appropriate degrees of reliability and in economic way, they will have adequate structural resistance, serviceability, durability and robustness.
Authors:Konstantinos Chatzinikos and Charalambos Baniotopoulos
The use of glass-aluminum façades as building envelopes is very common in modern construction. In fact, the advantages of their use have rendered them an optimal choice for building designers. However, glass-aluminum façades are commonly designed using rules of thumb having as a result either their over-dimensioning or an unsafe dimensioning leading to possible damages. The present research study aims to contribute to a pilot methodology that would provide engineers aiming to design glass-aluminum façades with the appropriate technique regarding the modeling and the performance of the aforementioned structures subjected to the imposed critical design loadings (cf. e.g. wind and earthquake). The proposed advanced approach is illustrated by means of a numerical application.
Authors:Réka Sárközi, Péter Iványi, and Attila Béla Széll
The main objective of this paper is to classify the techniques of parametric design, and to make the existing classification system more exact. The previously created classification was based on shape and logical aspects, which granted a good approach for parametric design techniques and helped providing an overview. However this system, for the sake of scientific precision, needed further darification at points. In this paper a more precise classification is shown, which is based on the interpretation of patterns as graphs. This enables their topology to be studied in a more exact, mathematical way.
Authors:El Mehdi Echebba, Hasnae Boubel, Oumnia Elmrabet, and Mohamed Rougui
In this paper, an evaluation was tried for the impact of structural design on structural response. Several situations are foreseen as the possibilities of changing the distribution of the structural elements (sails, columns, etc.), the width of the structure and the number of floors indicates the adapted type of bracing for a given structure by referring only to its Geometric dimensions.
This was done by studying the effect of the technical design of the building on the natural frequency of the structure with the study of the influence of the distribution of the structural elements on the seismic response of the building, taking into account of the requirements of the Moroccan earthquake regulations 2000/2011 and using the ANSYS APDL and Robot Structural Analysis software.
Increasing building energy performance has become an obligatory objective in many countries. Thermal bridge is a major cause of poor energy performance, durability, and indoor air quality of buildings. This paper starts with a review of thermal bridges and their negative impacts on building energy efficiency. Based on published literatures, various types of building thermal bridges are discussed in this paper, including the most effective solutions to diminish their impacts. In addition, various numerical and experimental studies on the balcony thermal bridge are explored. Results show that among all types of thermal bridges, the exposed balcony slab produces the most challenging thermal bridging problem where an integrated thermal and structural design is required. Using low thermal conductivity materials in building construction could help in reducing the impact of thermal bridges. Finally, further investigations are needed to develop more innovative and effective solutions for the balcony thermal bridge.
In this paper, a fully analytical approach is proposed for framed structures with semi-rigid beam-to-column connections. Traditionally, the analysis of frame structures is based on the assumption that all connections are either frictionless pinned or fully rigid. Recent limit state specifications permit the concept of semi-rigid connection of the individual frame members in the structural design. In a frame with semi-rigid joints the loading creates both a bending moment and a relative rotation between the connected members. The moment and relative rotation are related acting through a constitutive law, which depends on the joint properties. In this study, a simplified beam-to-column connection is applied which was specified in EC3 Annex J. Results are presented for non-sway and sway frames under different load conditions.
. (1987): Structuraldesign of the developing and mature pericarp of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. - Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Plant Sci. ) 97 (1): 17-23.
Structuraldesign of the developing and mature pericarp of Hibiscus sabdariffa L