Around 1903–04 there was an outstanding number of sacral design competitions in Hungary, two of which at first glance seem very similar, and their juxtaposition even seemed to be a way of drawing more general conclusions. the Ministry of agriculture was looking for plans for churches in designs for villages to be settled by the state treasury, while the archdiocese of Kalocsa was looking for designs for Catholic churches to be built on the outskirts of subotica. the calls for proposals were for buildings of roughly the same size, a year apart, both seeking a solution to a pressing, long-standing problem. the problem was architectural, simply put: many churches were missing. the tendering process was not cheap, but it was the most efficient way to obtain many plans at once.
Comparing the competitions, various aspects were taken into account, firstly, the similarities and differences between the procedures, which were mainly due to the characteristics differences between of the institutions commissioning the work. the second was an architectural analysis, clarifying issues of building size, and then we looked at the characteristics of the design and layout. in this context, we reviewed the texts of the judging reports and made general observations on the two juries. the longer more extended, more professional review was analysed with the aim of reconstructing from the comments, summarising the criteria of the critique, the possible ideal types against which the judges compared the entries.
As a result, we have registered a kind of transition in sacral architecture in the mid-1900s, in which traditional form and spatial shaping were dominant, but also the signs of a later formalisation that would come to fruition in the 1910s. this transition can also be observed in professional texts on architecture, which evolved into professional writing that flourished in the years leading up to the First World War.
Similarly to its predecessors, the 14th installment of the time-honoured series adds new goldsmith's marks to the ones known from earlier publications (Elemér Kőszeghy 1936, Ilona P. Brestyánszky 1977). On the basis of registry research it provides new data on 18–19th century goldsmiths with additional information from urban censuses. This time Pest-based goldsmiths are highlighted from the first half of the 19th century, on the basis of works by József Blettl, József Redl, János Hoser and Kristóf Holl that cropped up in the art market, followed by Eperjes-based David Schuller's and the Nagyvárad goldsmith István Nádudvary's works, the latter owned by the Calvinist diocese. After identifying marks from Besztercebánya and Rimaszombat, the paper enlarges upon the Rozsnyó master Samuel Bablirik's works in public and private collections. From former Southern Hungary (today Serbia) the masters of Nagybecskerek (Zrenjanin) and Szabadka (Subotica) are introduced, together with their clientele: Martinus Zimmerer, Johann Christian Parbs, the goldsmiths called Nikolits and the noted Vojnich family.
Continuing with his earlier publications (Művészettörténeti Értesítő) the author presents new goldsmith’s marks and mark variants found in private collections and the art trade and makes an attempt to decode them. For already published marks he relies on Elemér Kőszeghy’s book (Elemér Kőszeghy: Hungarian goldsmith’s marks from the Middle Ages to 1867. Budapest 1936) and for the Pest-Buda marks on Ilona P. Brestyánszky’s work (History of goldsmith’s art in Pest-Buda. Budapest 1977), referring to the running numbers in these works. He presents new data about the goldsmiths of Pest, Brassó (Braşov, Kronstadt, Romania), Debrecen, Eperjes (Prešov, Preschau, Slovakia), Lőcse (Levoča, Leutschau, Slovakia), Nagyvárad (Oradea, Großwardein, Romania), Rimaszombat (Rimavská Sobota, Gross-Steffelsdorf, Slovakia), Szabadka (Subotica, Serbia) and Szatmárnémeti (Satu Mare, Romania).
György (Đuro) Arnold (1781-1848) the composer, teacher, conductor, lexicographer and founder of the first music school in Subotica, was the regens chori of the Subotica's Sv. Terezija church (1800-48). He was a prolific composer, writing in a variety of genres, from compositions for the church of Sv. Terezija, choral and chamber works to operas, melodramas, songs, overtures, and verbunkos (the complete list of his works is included in the appendix). Arnold's style was influenced by Viennese Classical church music and the emerging Hungarian national style. In his early sacred pieces, he used quotations from popular operas, but in later compositions he was closer to Haydn, and the Te Deum Solenne dedicated to the Zagreb Bishop Aleksandar Alagović shows possible influence of early Beethoven. In many aspects, Arnold was a composer on the periphery. He liked large ensembles which could impress audiences with the brightness of the orchestral sound altough, as far as we know, he never attempted to build a large symphonic form which would match the richness of such a sound. He ususally set the text in short sentences, quickly exhausting its possibilities, undermining the expectations raised by the large-scale gradations which open his compositions. In 1819, Arnold published Pismenik, a collections of texts (without tunes) of Croatian Roman Catholic hymns collected in Bačka (western Vojvodina); the preface to Pismenik and its complete table of contents are reprinted in an appendix. In 1839-40, he completed the hymnal Valóságos egyházi kántori fontos énekeskönyv with 186 church compositions intended for Hungarian and Transylvanian chuch musicians, which remained unpublished. In 1826, Arnold began working on the Historisch-musikalisch bibliographisches Tonkünstler Lexikon, which expanded to four manuscript volumes in length, but remained unpublished and seems to be lost today.
International Conference on Contemporary Achievements in Civil Engineering , Subotica, Serbia , 22 April 2016 , pp. 165 – 172 , http://www.gf.uns.ac.rs/ , (last visited 10 November 2017 ).
EN 1994-1-1 Eurocode 4
composite truss , Conference Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Contemporary Achievements in Civil Engineering , Subotica, Serbia, 22 April 2016, p. 165 - 172 , http://www.gf.uns.ac.rs/, (last visited 10 November 2107
A magyar nagyvárosok városházái – amelyek többsége a magyar historizmus legszebb építészeti emlékei közé tartozik – jól reprezentálják azt a robbanásszerű polgárosodást és modernizációt, amely az Osztrák– Magyar Monarchia (1867) létrejöttével bekövetkező változások velejárója volt.
Tanulmányunkban a korszak építészeti tendenciáinak megismeréséhez kívánunk egy új szempontot adni: a nagy városházák térszervezetét vizsgáljuk meg a közigazgatási struktúra történeti alakulásának fényében. Ezzel az elemzéssel egyúttal az adminisztráció és az építészet sajátos viszonyrendszerét is megvilágítjuk.
A vizsgálat alapját a dualizmus korának magyar építészeti szaksajtójában közölt hat törvényhatósági jogú város részletesebb pályázati dokumentációja adja, amely látványosan tükrözi a korszak városháza- építészeti tendenciáit. Győr (1893–1894), Pécs (1902–1903), Marosvásárhely (1905), Szabadka (1906), Pozsony (1907) és Kolozsvár (1910) városi székházainak tervpályázati anyagát dolgoztuk fel, aminek köszönhetően a városháza mint jelentős közigazgatási épülettípust elemeztük az építészeti funkció és a hely igény relációjában. Így – a legnagyobb városházák pályázatain keresztül – a kor városházáinak mint adminisztratív épületeknek – ismert építészeti reprezentativitása mellett – alaprajzi rendszerükben, helyiség struktúrájukban megfigyelhető speciális vonásait rajzolhatjuk fel.
The city halls of the Hungarian large cities – most of which are among the most beautiful architectural monuments of Hungarian historicism – well represent the explosive civilization and modernization that accompanied the changes that took place with the establishment of the Austro–Hungarian Monarchy (1867).
In our study, we want to give a new perspective to get to know the architectural tendencies of the period: we examine the spatial organization of large city halls in the light of the historical development of the administrative structure. With this analysis, we also shed light on the specific system of relations between administration and architecture.
The study is based on the more detailed tender documentation of six cities with municipal rights published in the Hungarian architectural press of the age of dualism, which spectacularly reflects the city hall architectural tendencies of the period.
We wrote up the design competition material of the city headquarters of Győr (1893–1894), Pécs (1902– 1903), Târgu Mureş (1905), Subotica (1906), Bratislava (1907) and Cluj-Napoca (1910), thanks to which we analyzed the city hall as a significant administrative building type in relation to architectural function and space requirements. Thus, through the tenders of the largest city halls, we can draw the special features of the city halls of the age as administrative buildings, in addition to their well-known architectural representativeness, in their floor plan system and room structure.
, Subotica, Serbia, pp. 375–382.
Tick J. Modelling control systems by autonomous mini robot,
Proceedings of the 3rd Romanian-Hungarian Joint Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence, SACI 2006
, 25–26 May 2006, Timisoara