Advantages of X-ray fluorescence with the use of Synchrotron Radiation are emphasized (intensity, polarization, tunability of energy). The experimental set-up and the fast computer system for the data reduction without standards are presented. The results are in good agreement with standard references. Examples of applications are presented: old coins and potteries were studied in archaeological domain; metal alloys were analyzed; element composition of bulk samples of volcanic rocks, sublimates and aerosols were determined.
Authors:A. E. S. Vives, S. Moreira, S. M. B. Brienza, O. L. A. Zucchi, and V. F. Nascimento Filho
The objective of this study was to use synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) for the
determination of metals and other elements in food available to the population in commercial establishments, in order to evaluate
the risks of contamination by these products. The analyzed species were vegetables, leafy vegetables, fruits, cereal and grain.
The results indicated that some species were contaminated by Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb with concentrations much higher than the reference
Authors:G. Weseloh, M. Kühbacher, H. Bertelsmann, M. Özaslan, A. Kyriakopoulos, and A. Knöchel
For the analysis of metal-containing proteins, sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) has been
synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF). In a pilot study the applicability of this combined method was tested in
the analysis of metalloaded
apoazurin and of the selenoproteins in rat testis homogenate. It was shown that it can be applied in the determination of
the major stable
binding forms of trace elements. After further improvement of the limits of detection the method will allow the analysis of
proteins present in the samples at low concentrations.
Authors:Gy. Vankó, L. Bottyán, D. Nagy, E. Szilágyi, and A. Vértes
Nuclear inelastic resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation was applied to the study solutions of 57Fe complexes. In order to reveal different inelastic contributions solutions of two different 57Fe complexes of different molecular dimensions with solvents of substantially different viscosities were studied. We argue that the only former experiment available in the literature overestimates the role of the diffusivity in affecting the spectrum. The first direct observation of an intramolecular vibrational transition assisting the nuclear resonance absorption in a liquid is reported.
Authors:S. Moreira, A. E. S. Vives, O. L. A. D. Zucchi, E. F. O. de Jesus, V. F. Nascimento Filho, and S. M. B. Brienza
In this study the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international
beers were determined by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared
with the limits established by the Brazilian legislation and the nutritional values established by National Agricultural Library
(NAL, USA). The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory,
in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 ml of beers containing an internal
standard used to correct geometry effects was analyzed without pretreatment. The measuring time was 100 seconds and the detection
limits obtained varied from 1 mg . l-1 for Mn and Fe to 15 mg . l-1 for P.
Authors:Y. Kuroiwa, S. Aoyagi, A. Sawada, H. Ikawa, I. Yamashita, N. Inoue, and T. Atake
The crystal structures of BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 fine particles have been investigated by powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation high energy X-rays. It is revealed
that a BaTiO3 fine particle essentially consists of tetragonal and cubic structure components at 300 K, whereas a PbTiO3 fine particle consists of a tetragonal structure. Adopting a structure model for the BaTiO3 particle that a cubic shell covers a tetragonal core, the thickness of cubic BaTiO3 shell is estimated at almost constant irrespective of particle sizes. Successive phase transitions are detected in 100 nm
particles of BaTiO3 near the phase-transition temperatures of a bulk crystal. The changes in diffraction profiles are small, but they are apparent
for a most up-to-date powder diffractometry.
Authors:K. Nomura, A. Rykov, T. Mitsui, Y. Yoda, Y. Kobayashi, M. Seto, and Ts. Sawada
Resonant nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of (Sr,Ca)(Fe,Co)O3-d and (Ba,Ca)(Fe,Co)O3-d were measured with the energy resolution of 3.5 MeV by detecting the 6.3 keV Fe Ka X-rays following after Mössbauer effect on 57Fe transition excited by the monochromatized 14.41 keV synchrotron radiation. Both series of oxides annealed in air and in CO2 were examined. Soft phonon peak arising at ~8 MeV in NIS spectra of (Sr0.5Ca0.5)(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3-d and (Ba0.5Ca0.5)FeO3-d was found to be correlated with the oxygen ordering into brownmillerite structure, whereas more complex multi-phonon structure was observed in the spectra of less oxygen-deficient oxides such as (Sr0.95Ca0.05)(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3-d and (Sr0.7Ca0.3)(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3-d showing rather random distrubution of the oxygen vacancies. The changes in phonon DOS after CO2 absorbtion were also detected. Lam-Mössbauer factors of these oxides were calculated on the base of Debye Model.
Authors:A. C. M. Costa, C. R. F. Castro, M. J. Anjos, and R. T. Lopes
Trace elements were determined in the surface waters of tributaries of the Sepetiba Bay, Brazil (Piraquê, Itá, São Francisco,
Guarda, Guandu Mirim, Vala do Sangue and Engenho Novo rivers) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation
(SRTXRF). Eighteen trace elements could be determined in the dissolved and the suspended particulate phases: Al, Si, P, S,
Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. The elemental concentration values were compared to the values recommended
by the Brazilian legislation.
Authors:R. F. B. Serpa, E. F. O. De Jesus, M. J. Anjos, R. T. Lopes, M. G. T. do Carmo, S. Moreira, M. S. Rocha, and A. M. B. Martinez
The study of trace element levels is of great importance due to their relevance in agingand several neurodegenerative diseases.
This work compares the elemental concentrations in different postnatal ages and between the temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex
and hippocampus from Wistar rats, using X-ray total reflection fluorescence with synchrotron radiation. Ten elements were
determined in brain samples: Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, (at trace level) and P, S, Cl and K (at major levels). The elements that
increased with aging in cortical areas were: S, K, Fe, Cu and Zn. Ca and Zn levels decreased with advancing age in the hippocampus.
In addition to this, Ti, Mn and Fe levels were more conspicuous in the entorhinal cortex.
Authors:L. Feng, H. Xiao, X. He, Z. Li, F. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chai, Y. Zhao, Y. Huang, W. He, and Z. Zhang
To investigate the effects of lanthanum exposure on regional distribution of inorganic elements in rat brain. Wistar rats
were exposed to lanthanum chloride through oral administration at 0, 0.1, 2, and 40 mg/kg concentration for 6 months. The
elements such as Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn were identified in the brain slices by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence
(SRXRF) analysis. Differences of brain elemental distributions were noticed. Cl, Ca, and Zn were primarily concentrated in
hippocampus of the controls. With the increase of the lanthanum dosage, the Ca and Zn levels significantly decreased, while
the Cu levels significantly elevated in cortex, hippocampus and thalamus. Our results suggest that subchronic lanthanum exposure
in rats appears to change elemental distributions in brain.