Authors:Mirko Prosek, Luka Milivojevic, Mitja Krizman, and Maja Fir
A new on-line TLC-MS interface, with computer-controlled extraction of substances from selected spots on a TLC or HPTLC plate, has been constructed. The controlled collection of the sample and its programmed injection into the mass spectrometer is the advantage of this type of interface. The interface has been tested and validated with a standard solution of caffeine as test substance. The results were compared with those from a previously established and now routinely used off-line TLC-SPE-APCI-MS extraction procedure.
Authors:Katerina Naumoska, Breda Simonovska, Alen Albreht, and Irena Vovk
Separation of three triterpenic acids (ursolic, oleanolic and betulinic acid) was achieved on different thin-layer chromatography (TLC) (silica gel 60) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) sorbents (silica gel 60, C2 RP and C18 RP) using several developing solvents, based on the non-polar diluent n-hexane, and ester (methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate) as selector. Anisaldehyde and molybdophosphoric acid detection reagents were used. Finally, a simple method on a C18 RP HPTLC plate was developed using n-hexane-ethyl acetate (5:1 v/v) as a developing solvent in a horizontal developing chamber. The method was used for the screening of ursolic, oleanolic and betulinic acids in different vegetable extracts. Other plant triterpenoids (lupeol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, cycloartenol, lupenone, friedelin, lupeol acetate, cycloartenol acetate) and phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol) did not interfere. TLC-MS was used as a tool for the additional confirmation of the presence of ursolic, oleanolic, and betulinic acids in some of the studied vegetable extracts. Ursolic and oleanolic acids were found in radicchio Leonardo and white-colored radicchio di Castelfranco extracts for the first time, while betulinic acid was not detected in the eggplant extract by MS, although it was suggested at first by TLC analysis. Pre-chromatographic bromination on the HPTLC silica gel 60 plates and subsequent development in toluene-chloroform-diethyl ether-formic acid (20:16:4:0.1, v/v) provided a superior resolution of these compounds.
Authors:Mieczysław Sajewicz, Łukasz Wojtal, Michał Hajnos, Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos, and Teresa Kowalska
In a previous paper we discussed the possibility of fractionating the essential oils of different sage species by low-temperature preparative layer chromatography (PLC), followed by preparative isolation of the contents of each fraction and further analysis by GC-MS. In that way we attempted to emphasize the practical usefulness of lowtemperature planar chromatography for investigation of volatile compounds. In this study, we explore a possibility of fractionating essential oils contained in the different sage species by low-temperature analytical TLC followed by direct mass spectrometric analysis of the separated fractions. This objective can be achieved by TLC-MS with on-line transfer of the eluted fractions. The densitograms obtained from five different sage species (i.e.,
S. lavandulifolia, S. staminea, S. hians, S. triloba
) are compared. Each densitogram is accompanied by mass spectra recorded for each peak. Videoscans of the chromatograms are also presented. In this way multiple fingerprints of the analyzed plant material, each comprising a densitogram and a selection of mass spectra, were obtained. Advanced chemometric treatment of these multiple fingerprints can be used to reveal statistically significant differences between the plant species. Analytical and chemotaxonomic advantages and further aspects for this kind of approach are discussed.
Authors:A. Maciejowska, A. Godziek, M. Sajewicz, and T. Kowalska
This study is devoted to the thin-layer chromatographic demonstration of spontaneous chiral conversion of l-hydroxyproline (l-Hyp) to d-hydroxyproline (d-Hyp), and to its spontaneous peptidization, when dissolved in 70% aqueous methanol and stored at room temperature in a stoppered glass vessel. The adopted enantioseparation conditions were the same ones, as employed earlier for a successful enantioseparation of l- and d-proline. To this effect, we used microcrystalline cellulose as stationary phase and a quaternary mixture composed of 2-butanol:pyridine:glacial acetic acid:water (30:20:4:24, v/v) as mobile phase. Structural difference between proline and hydroxyproline consists in the presence of one hydroxyl group per molecule of the latter amino acid, which makes the respective enantioseparation a more difficult task. Consequently, the obtained separation effect was not a complete (i.e., a baseline) resolution of the two Hyp antimers yet a sufficient enough proof of the appearance of d-Hyp, apparently due to spontaneous chiral conversion taking place in the course of the l-Hyp solution storage and ageing period. The condensation products were discovered both in the fresh and the aged l-Hyp solution, yet in the aged sample, the condensation product yields were considerably higher than in the freshly prepared one (as convincingly demonstrated by mass spectrometry). Demonstration of the condensation products was performed with the aid of thin-layer chromatography (TLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and thin-layer chromatography-mass spectrometry (TLC-MS).
Authors:Vesna Glavnik, Breda Simonovska, Alen Albreht, and Irena Vovk
A thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) method for fast screening of trans-resveratrol, pterostilbene, and p-coumaric acid in samples of recombinant bacterial cultures, food supplements, and wine was developed. The separation was performed on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) silica gel 60 plates using n-hexane-ethyl acetate-formic acid (20:19:1, v/v) as developing solvent in tank configuration of horizontal developing chamber, in which better resolution between trans-resveratrol and p-coumaric acid than in sandwich configuration of the same chamber or in automatic developing chamber (ADC) was obtained. Compounds were detected before and after post-chromatographic derivatization (three detection reagents) by image analyzing system (at 366 nm or white light) and by densitometer (absorption-reflectance and fluorescence mode). The lowest densitometric limits of detection (LOD) 2 ng for trans-resveratrol (303 nm), 5 ng for pterostilbene (303 nm), and 15 ng for p-coumaric acid (286 nm) were found before derivatization in absorption-reflectance mode. Post-chromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde-sulfuric acid detection reagent resulted in higher LOD in the same mode: 13 ng for trans-resveratrol and pterostilbene at 500 nm and 30 ng for p-coumaric acid at 566 nm. Natural fluorescence of both stilbenes was less sensitive than UV absorption and less selective than post-chromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde reagent at densitometric screening of trans-resveratrol in the samples. A complementary high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for screening and quantification of the three compounds in recombinant bacterial cultures. Adequate separation of the analytes was performed in 35 min by a gradient elution from a stainless-steel column Hypersil ODS (150 × 4.6 mm I.D., particle size: 5 μm) with the mobile phase consisting of 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5.6 (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) at the flow rate of 1.5 mLmin−1.
Authors:Emil Mincsovics, Péter Ott, Ágnes Alberti, Andrea Böszörményi, Éva Héthelyi, Éva Szőke, Ágnes Kéry, Éva Lemberkovics, and Ágnes Móricz
Bioassay-guided isolation of antibacterial components of chamomile flower methanol extract was performed by overpressured layer chromatography (OPLC) with on-line detection, fractionation combined with sample clean-up in-situ in the adsorbent bed after off-line sample application. The antibacterial effect of the eluted fractions and of those compounds remaining on the adsorbent layer after separation was tested with direct bioautography (DB) against the bioluminescent Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. maculicola and Vibrio fischeri. The fractions with high biological activity were analyzed by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Two active uneluted compounds were characterized by off-line OPLC-MS using a thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-MS interface. Mainly, essential oil components, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids were identified in the active fractions.
Authors:Anna Klimek-Turek, Maciej Jan Rybicki, Aleksandra Gierach, Waldemar Korol, and Tadeusz Henryk Dzido
Coccidiostats are a group of drugs used for the treatment of coccidiosis. This disease is common among animals for slaughter. Residues of the mentioned drugs can be potentially harmful for human health, so there is a constant need for cheap and quick method for their determination. A novel sample preparation technique, solvent front position extraction (SFPE), for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for such a purpose. In the SFPE procedure, the adsorbent layer of a chromatographic plate is used for purification and separation of substances of interest from matrix components. After applying the SFPE technique, solutes and the internal standard are not only separated from unwanted components, but also focused and evenly distributed in the zone located at the solvent front position. From such a zone, the substances can be directly transferred from thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate to LC-MS instrument using the TLC-MS Interface. Focusing the substances of interest in a narrow zone improves the sensitivity of an assay, while the homogeneity of these zones guarantees their accurate quantification, even if only a part of the substance zone undergoes extraction using a TLC-MS Interface. The SFPE procedure is especially recommended for samples with high viscosity or/and with large amounts of contaminants and enables cleaning a final sample solution from matrix components, showing lower and stronger retention than the solutes of interest. In this work, the application of SFPE procedure for separation of the substances of interest from two biological matrices (bovine serum and animal feed) is presented. The results are promising and allow their application for further research of these compounds.
Authors:Agnieszka Godziek, Anna Maciejowska, Ewa Talik, Mieczysław Sajewicz, and Teresa Kowalska
Spontaneous oscillatory chiral conversion and condensation of low-molecular-weight chiral carboxylic acids have been investigated by our research group for almost 10 years now. However, dynamics of these oscillatory processes substantially differ from one compound to another, moreover, spontaneous chiral conversion and condensation of sulfur-containing amino acids have not been investigated so far. To this effect, we present in this paper the results of our current investigations on spontaneous oscillatory chiral conversion and condensation of l-cysteine (l-Cys), a biologically important sulfur-containing semiessential amino acid. In our thin-layer chromatographic experiments, we employ the Mn(II) and Zn(II) cations to facilitate the enantioseparation of l-Cys from the spontaneously formed d-Cys, to prevent chiral conversion of the L form, and to highlight rapid consumption of Cys in the course of condensation. Spontaneous peptidization of Cys is confirmed with use of thin-layer chromatography-mass spectrometry (TLC-MS). Additionally, we emphasize the oscillatory nature of the investigated process with use of high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) and provide a complementary insight in the chemical structure of the spontaneously formed Cys-derived oligopeptides with use of HPLC-MS.