Authors:J. Fan, S. Zhang, J. Lu, J. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ding, and Y. Chang
In order to measure 182Hf by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a chemical procedure for separation of hafnium from tungsten has been developed
by extraction chromatography. The extraction chromatographic behavior of hafnium and tungsten has been studied using tri-n-octylamine (TOA) as the stationary phase, HCl–H2O2 mixture and NH3·H2O as the mobile phase. The effects of H2O2 concentration, column loading and column dimensions are investigated. Hf and W with microgram amounts are successfully separated
on a chromatographic column (Ø5 × 196 mm), on which Hf is hardly retained after completely eluted with 6 M HCl–1% H2O2 and W strongly adsorbed is then eluted with 3 M NH3·H2O. The decontamination factor for tungsten is 3.0 × 105 and the recovery of hafnium is better than 99% using a single column separation.
The extraction of plutonium(VI) and plutonium(III) from sulphuric acid by TOA in toluene has been studied as a function of
the acid and tri-octyl amine concentration. A comparison of the extraction properties of plutonium with those of uranium(VI)
and uranium(IV) has been made. It was found that the extraction properties of plutonium(VI) are very similar to those of uranium(VI)
and that TOA is a relatively poor extractant for plutonium(III). Uranium(IV) shows better extraction properties than plutonium(III).
The results obtained are considered in the light of the stabilities of the complexes formed by these elements in the organic
and aqueous phase. A method of separation of both elements by solvent extraction based on changing their oxidation states
Phosphorous containing radioisotope waste was separated and determined by liquid–liquid extraction method through liquid scintillation
counter (LSC). In this process, ammonium phosphate was converted to phosphomolybdate (PMo) by the reaction of ammonium molybdate
(Mo) in HCl solution (0.02 M) and maximum UV/VIS absorbance (λmax) 218 nm was observed. The PMo solution was extracted with TOA (Tri-n-Octylamine)/xylene mixture and λmax 290 nm was found for this organic layer. Absorbance of aqueous and organic layer was linear through concentration. The impurities
such as Co, Cr, Gd, etc. remain in aqueous layer by treating with Mo which was determined by ICP-AES and AAS. The quenching
correction curve for 32P was calculated using LSC results. No counting change was observed as the volume of quenchers increased. The recovery was
98% and 81% for the extraction and separation process from the test using H332PO4 as standard tracer.
No-carrier-added (nca) 90Nb (14.6 h) was produced by irradiating a natural zirconium foil of 4.9 mg/cm2 thickness by 13 MeV proton beam. Nca 90Nb of ~27 kBq activity was produced in the target matrix. Liquid–liquid extraction technique was applied using trioctylamine
(TOA) in cyclohexane to separate nca 90Nb from bulk zirconium matrix. About 70% radiochemical yield of nca 90Nb was achieved with a separation factor of 1.4 × 104.
Authors:M. Mufazzal Saeed, Munir Ahmed, and Akbar Ali
Synergic extraction of different essential and toxic metal ions such as Mn(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Se(IV) has been carried out using toluene-3,4-dithiol (TDT) and trioctylamine (TOA) in chloroform. A strong synergic effect in the extraction of Co(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) has been observed. The effect of different anions on the extraction has also been analyzed. Ascorbate ions can easily separate Hg(II) and Se(IV) ions. The stability of synergic adduct and reaction mechanism are discussed.
Simultaneous production of carrier free89Zr and90,91m,92mNb through the (, pxn) and (,xn) nuclear reactions has been performed by -particle activation of Y2O3 target. The sequential separation of the produced radioisotopes from the bulk target matrix has been achieved through LLX using TOA as a liquid anion exchanger. Formation of the carrier free radionuclides in the target matrix and their purity in different stages of separation have been verified by -ray spectrometry.
A radiochemical charged particle activation procedure for the simultaneous production of carrier-free radioisotopes of more than one element in a single target and their subsequent separation through LLX has been demonstrated. The carrier free isotopes,95,96Nb,93,94,95,96,99mTc and94,95,97,103Ru formed through Mo(,pxn), Mo(,pxn) and Mo(,xn) nuclear reactions with 40 MeV -particle as detected by nondestructive -ray spectroscopy, have been effectively separated through LLX using TOA as an anionic extractant. Separation of the bulk matrix of molybdenum from the carrier free products has been monitored radiometrically using isotopic93,99mMo formed through the Mo(,xn) reaction, as radioindicators for the target element. Purity of the separated carrier free radionuclide has been verified by -ray spectrometry.
Extraction behavior of zirconium and hafnium tracers,95Zr and175,181Hf, in HF, HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4 media with the liquid anion exchanger TOA has been studied. Under optimum conditions, TOA was found to be very effective for quantitative extraction of the individual elements at their trace scale concentrations, but due to higher extractibility and almost identical chemical behavior of the radiotracers towards TOA, the reagent was not so effective for mutual separation of the elements when they were present as congeneric pairs in the aqueous solutions. Extents of extraction of the elements at different stages were measured by -ray spectrometry.
The equilibria between the solution of TOA in toluene and mixtures of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid been studied. They were
characterized by ratios of stability constants of amine salts formed in the organic phase.