Authors:B. Yan, H. X. Ma, N. N. Zhao, T. Mai, J. R. Song, F. Q. Zhao, and R. Z. Hu
-isothermal decomposition reaction kinetics, and thermalsafety of DNPDNAZ were studied under 0.1 and 2 MPa by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method to explore the effects of the pressure on the materials’ properties.
Authors:J. Sempere, R. Nomen, E. Serra, B. Sempere, and D. Guglielmi
thermalsafety point of view, the generation of the first peak does not depend from the surrounding atmosphere, but only from the trapped oxygen as it is confirmed by the constant integral of the DSC peak of the phenomenon. As a consequence, a hot spot in
Authors:Abduljelil Iliyas, Kelly Hawboldt, and Faisal Khan
probability in terms of time to maximum rate under adiabatic conditions.
In continuation of our research on sulfide mineral self-heating behavior [ 1 , 2 ], we report in this paper thermalsafety prediction of self-heating based on iso
Authors:Haiying Liu, Xinming Qian, Zhiming Du, Ping Huang, and Zhenyi Liu
There are different thermal explosion models of sphere fireworks and crackers with different structures, so thermalsafety analysis of different fireworks and crackers have great significance on the basis
Authors:Mei-Li You, Ming-Yang Liu, Sheng-Hung Wu, Jen-Hao Chi, and Chi-Min Shu
Lauroyl peroxide (LPO) is a typical organic peroxide that has caused many thermal runaway reactions and explosions. Differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to determine the fundamental thermokinetic parameters that involved exothermic onset
temperature (T0), heat of decomposition (ΔHd), and other safety parameters for loss prevention of runaway reactions and thermal explosions. Frequency factor (A) and activation
energy (Ea) were calculated by Kissinger model, Ozawa equation, and thermal safety software (TSS) series via DSC experimental data.
Liquid thermal explosion (LTE) by TSS was employed to simulate the thermal explosion development for various types of storage
tank. In view of loss prevention, calorimetric application and model analysis to integrate thermal hazard development were
necessary and useful for inherently safer design.
Authors:B. Roduit, P. Folly, B. Berger, J. Mathieu, A. Sarbach, H. Andres, M. Ramin, and B. Vogelsanger
Present study depicts the extension of the method of the application of the advanced kinetic description of the energetic
materials decomposition by its combination with the exact heat balance carried out by numerical analysis and the determination
of the self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT). Moreover, the additional parameters such as thermal conductivity
of the self-reactive substances, the type of containers and insulation layers, and different temperature profiles of the surrounding
environment were taken into consideration.
The results of DSC experiments carried out with different heating rates in the range of 0.25–4°C min−1 were elaborated by the Thermokinetics software. The application the Thermal Safety software and the kinetics-based approach
led to proper selection of experimental conditions for SADT testing. The applied approach enabled the simulation of such scenario
as the thermal ignition of self-reactive chemicals conditioned previously for 12 h at 80°C and exposed later isothermally
for 8 h to temperatures between 120–180°C. Described method can be used for analysis of possible development of runaway during
storage or transport of dangerous goods (TDG) and containers, and subsequent choice of the conditions that can prevent an
Authors:B. Roduit, W. Dermaut, A. Lunghi, P. Folly, B. Berger, and A. Sarbach
An adiabatic calorimeter is very often used for the investigation of runaway of exothermic reactions. However the ideal adiabatic
environment is a theoretical state which during laboratory scale testing cannot be obtained but may only be approached. Deviation
from the fully adiabatic state comes from (i) the thermal inertia of the test system or heat lost into the sample container and (ii) the loss of heat from the container itself to the environment that reflects the ‘operational adiabaticity’ of the instrument.
In addition to adiabatic testing, advanced kinetic approach based on the kinetic parameters determined from DSC data performed
under different heating rates can be applied. It enables to simulate what may happen on a large scale by testing and up-scaling
results obtained with a small amount of the sample.
The present study describes the method of the evaluation of kinetic parameters of the coupling reaction of aniline with cyanamide
in water/HCl from the DSC signals measured in non-isothermal experiments carried out with the rates of 0.5–8 K min−1. The reaction rate and reaction progress in adiabatic conditions were predicted after introducing the kinetic description
of the reaction into the heat balance equations. It enabled to calculate the thermal safety diagram depicting the runaway
time as a function of the process temperature. The influence of thermal inertia of the system, expressed by the Φ-factor,
on the reaction course in concentrated and diluted reactant solutions was determined and discussed.
Authors:Y. Chou, J. Huang, J. Tseng, S. Cheng, and C. Shu
Organic peroxides have caused many serious explosions and fires that were promoted by thermal instability, chemical pollutants,
and even mechanical shock. Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been employed in polymerization and for producing phenol and dicumyl
peroxide (DCPO). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to assess the thermal hazards associated with CHP contacting
sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Thermokinetic parameters, such as exothermic onset temperature (T0), peak temperature (Tmax), and enthalpy (ΔH) were obtained. Experimental data were obtained using DSC and curve fitting using thermal safety software (TSS) was employed
to obtain the kinetic parameters. Isothermal microcalorimetry (thermal activity monitor, TAM) was used to investigate the
thermal hazards associated with storing of CHP and CHP mixed with NaOH under isothermal conditions.
TAM showed that in the temperature range from 70 to 90°C an autocatalytic reaction occurs. This was apparent in the thermal
curves. Depending on the operating conditions, NaOH may be one of the chemicals or catalysts incompatible with CHP. When CHP
was mixed with NaOH, the T0 is lower and reactions become more complex than those associated with assessment of the decomposition of the pure peroxide.
The data by curve fitting indicated that the activation energy (Ea) for the induced decomposition is smaller than that for decomposition of CHP in the absence of hydroxide.
Authors:Sun-Ju Shen, Sheng-Hung Wu, Jen-Hao Chi, Yih-Wen Wang, and Chi-Min Shu
Dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) is usually employed as an initiator for polymerization, a source of free radicals, a hardener, and
a linking agent. In Asia, due to its unstable reactive nature, DCPO has caused many thermal explosions and runaway reaction
incidents in the manufacturing process. This study was conducted to elucidate its essentially thermal hazard characteristics.
In order to analyze the runaway behavior of DCPO in a batch reactor, thermokinetic parameters, such as heat of decomposition
(ΔHd) and exothermic onset temperature (T0), were measured via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermal runaway phenomena were then thoroughly investigated
by DSC. The thermokinetics of DCPO mixed with acids or bases were determined by DSC, and the experimental data were compared
with kinetics-based curve fitting of thermal safety software (TSS). Solid thermal explosion (STE) and liquid thermal explosion
(LTE) simulations of TSS were applied to determine the fundamental thermal explosion behavior in large tanks or drums. Results
from curve fitting indicated that all of the acids or bases could induce exothermic reactions at even an earlier stage of
the experiments. In order to diminish the extent of hazard, hazard information must be provided to the manufacturing process.
Thermal hazard of DCPO mixed with nitric acid (HNO3) was more dangerous than with other acids including sulfuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), and hydrochloric acid (HCl). By DSC, T0, heat of decomposition (ΔHd), and activation energy (Ea) of DCPO mixed with HNO3 were calculated to be 70 °C, 911 J g−1, and 33 kJ mol−1, respectively.