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In January and March 2000 two tailings dam failures occurred in the upper Tisza catchment area near Baia Mare and Baia Borsa (Romania). These resulted metal pollution of the Lápos-Szamos-Tisza and Visó-Tisza river systems. The mining accidents were followed by a flood event. Many studies reported that elevated Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations were observable in water, sediment and in soils of flooded areas as well. Mine wastewater contained large amounts of suspended solids with high metal concentrations. The aims of this study were the determination of Lakanen-Erviö extractable, easily available metal contents of the soil samples collected in 2011 from Tivadar floodplain, a pasture near Vásárosnamény, a pasture near Rakamaz and Tiszacsege floodplain along the Tisza, and the comparison of these data and the results of an earlier study in 2000.According to our results the soil profiles of Vásárosnamény, Rakamaz and Tiszacsege is considered to be polluted by Zn, Pb and Cd. Low metal concentrations were found in the soil samples originated from Tivadar floodplain that was not affected by the first tailings pond failure. According to the statistical analyses of these data it can be established that during the 11-year period the easily available Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb contents of the pasture near Vásárosnamény increased significantly. This may caused by the periodical flood events or the mobilization of the pollutants. Further investigations (solid state partitioning of metals by sequential extraction) are required to find an explanation of this increase.

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A normalization method was tested for the detection of low level chromium contamination in the soil of the Tisza River Floodplain in Hungary. The soils' so-called “total” metal concentration (strong acid extractable fraction) is the basis of many environmental evaluation methods, soil tests.  In the floodplain soils cadmium, lead, zinc and copper occur in elevated concentrations, but their chromium concentration is not significantly higher than that of the control soils.  The normalization method makes it possible to calculate the anthropogenic and geogenic chromium concentration in soil. Anthropogenic chromium was not detectable on the control sites, but a significant amount (4-14 mg/kg) was found in the floodplain soil samples. The applied normalization method proved the low level chromium contamination in the floodplain.

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., NÉMETH , T ., GYŐRI Z ., 2003 . Natural Attenuation of Metals along the Tisza River-Floodplain-Wetlands Continuum . University of Georgia

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in the Lower-Tisza section 0.8 cm year −1 [ 3 , 4 ]. The solution from the official Hungarian water management was the ‘Further Development of Vásárhelyi's Plan’ (FDVP) [ 5 ]. Pál Vásárhelyi was the designer of the Tisza River regulation

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River Tisza, Hungary II. Examination of soil and herbaceous plants in the Upper Tisza. In: Natural Attenuation of Metals Along the Tisza River–Floodplain–Wetlands Continuum (Eds.: Adriano, D., Németh, T. & Győri, Z. ) 161–163. Debreceni Egyetem

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599 battle by the Tisza River, the Byzantines captured Avars, Gepids, and Slavs ( Pohl 2002 , 216). Gepid forces also took part in the 626 siege of Constantinople ( Pohl 2002 , 248). Attila Kiss compiled the sources related to the Gepids' survival

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This article assesses the current challenges to water management in the Tisza River basin. We overview the environmental characteristics of the Tisza river basin and consider the economic setting within which water policy making must be conducted, before characterizing the principal water pollution sources in the region and assessing water quality monitoring data. We then compare the current status of the region’s waters to the normative goals for water quality improvement specified in the European Union Water Framework Directive. Lastly, we assess the future outlook for water quality in the Tisza basin, given the current status of water quality in the region and the prospects for successfully implementing water policy objectives.

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With the regulation of the rivers vast areas along the Tisza River were drained. As a result of this process flood plain farming gave way to the cultivation of field crops. However, the traditional forms of farming survived on the river flats between the dikes and the river and in the early 20th century vines and fruit trees were planted on the higher areas here outside many settlements along the Tisza River. The cultivation of vines in a manner adapted to the ecology and natural conditions of the river flats in Szentes resulted in the production of table grapes in quantities exceeding the subsistence level, for sale on the market. The article attempts primarily to explore the natural conditions determining this special form of cultivation. The most important natural factor is the periodical inundation during floods which fundamentally influences the course of grape production. The author examines how people farming in these areas are able to adapt to the harsh natural conditions, how they organise the cultivation and whether this ecological adaptation can be regarded as successful and viable.

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Abstract

The aim of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive report on the cadastral works of mounds in the central part of Tiszántúl (the region east of the Tisza River), taking the burial mounds of the Late Copper Age Yamnaya entity as a starting point. Theoretical and field research began around the beginning of the 19th century, and in the second half of the 20th century systematic site registration took place, mainly due to the so-called ‘Archaeological Sites of Hungary’ project. Later on national surveys and local initiatives were carried out, but they are of very different quality. In addition to the main characteristics and results of the creation of these cadastres, we also outline further scientific studies on mounds.

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Framed by Béla Bartók’s criticism of Ferenc Erkel’s nationally inappropriate style in his polemic “On Hungarian Music,” this article examines, on the one hand, the overlap between the conventions of the bel canto Italian mad scene and the structure of verbunkos in Act 3, scene 1 of Erkel’s Bánk bán, and, on the other, the dramaturgical and national significance of Erkel’s particular mixture of such international and Hungarian traditions. In particular, I consider the seeming incongruence between the typically celebratory mood of the csárdás and its function as the cabaletta of Melinda’s mad scene as an expression of Hungarian national preoccupation with victimhood (propagated by such foundational national texts as Mihály Vörösmarty’s 1836 Szózat, which has served as Hungary’s “second national anthem”). Melinda’s mad scene takes place on the banks of the Tisza River on the Great Hungarian Plain, a location of central importance to Hungarian national identity. This environment, which Erkel and his librettist invented for the mad scene, reinforces Melinda’s tragic role as a symbol of the nation. With eye and ear attuned to Hungarian traditions on several different levels, a close reading of this scene demonstrates that even when Erkel works within well-worn traditions of the international opera stage, he does so in a manner specifically suited to the spirit of nineteenth-century Hungarian nationalism.

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