Authors:A. Pradeep, G. Nagaraju, P. Sarita, A. Rao, B. Reddy, G. Rao, and S. Reddy
A number of essential trace elements play a major role in various metabolic pathways and in many diseases like autoimmune,
neurological and psychiatric. This study is undertaken with an aim to evaluate the levels of different trace elements in the
scalp hair samples of patients suffering from alcohol induced psychosis by particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE).
It is observed that Fe (p < 0.0005), Cu (p < 0.001) are significantly higher in the hair samples of alcohol induced psychosis patients compared to those in normals
while concentrations of Mn (p < 0.005) and Zn (p < 0.0001) are lower. The concentrations of Co and Ni in the hair samples are found to be in consonance with the concentrations
in the normals.
Authors:Tuo Fei, Li Dehong, Zhou Fengqun, Luo Junhua, Tuo Hua, and Kong Xiangzhong
Roots of Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica sinensis, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Codonopsis pilosula, which were often used as herbs in traditional Chinese medicine, were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
(INAA). The samples were collected in Gansu, northwest of China and irradiated at the 15 MW heavy water reactor in China Institute
of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The induced activities were counted by a well calibrated low background γ-spectrometer equipped with
a high efficiency coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentrations of eighteen trace elements (Ca, Fe, Na,
Zn, Ba, Rb, Ce, Cr, La, Co, Th, Cs, Sb, Sc, Sm, Hf, Eu and Tb) in the herbs were determined. Possible links between pharmacological
action of the herbs and content of some elements were also discussed in this paper. The measured results were compared with
the reported values in literature.
Authors:Kh. Rezaee, M. Abdi, E. Saion, K. Naghavi, and M. Shafaei
In order to complete having data base of elemental assessment of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia marine sediments along
the South China Sea coasts, trace elements are analyzed and their distribution in marine sediments is undertaken. The present
study is done parallel with pervious study on elemental assessment of heavy metals, rare earth elements and actinides in the
marine sediments of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty surface sediment samples were collected in this area, including
regions of Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Rompin and Johor Baharu. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental
neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. In both cases methodology validation
was performed by certified reference material analyses. For the surface elemental distributions the enrichment factor values,
average Igeo and mCd values indicate that the trace elements of the surface sediments are uncontaminated in all sampling stations that are consistent
with previous studies results of heavy metals, rare earth elements and actinides.
Authors:B. Beladel, B. Nedjimi, A. Mansouri, and M. Benamar
In Algeria, bread is the staple food, produced in different kinds from local and imported wheat. Most of it is not subjected
to micro-elemental analysis. The objective of this study is to determine quantitatively the traces elements in samples wheat
grains produced locally from different cultivated provinces in Algeria. Trace elements (Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sc, Se and Zr)
were determined using neutron activation analysis. The results show that the contents of the traces elements in the studied
samples were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements recommended by WHO/FAO except for cobalt in El Harrach
province. The analytical results showed that chromium was undetectable in all samples except for Constantine, Ain Mlila and
Setif provinces. However zirconium content in a few samples exceeded the permissible level.
Authors:P. Sarita, G. Naga Raju, A. Pradeep, Tapash Rautray, B. Seetharami Reddy, S. Bhuloka Reddy, and V. Vijayan
Trace elemental imbalance in human beings is postulated to exert action, directly or indirectly, on the carcinogenic process.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of trace elements in blood sera of breast cancer patients and analyze
their alteration with respect to healthy controls. This work was also intended to establish the role played by the trace elements
in carcinogenic process. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for trace elemental analysis of blood sera
of breast cancer patients and healthy controls. The PIXE measurements were carried out using a 2.5 MeV collimated proton beam
from the 3 MV Tandem Pelletron accelerator at Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India. On comparing the trace elemental content
in the sera of breast cancer patients with those of control subjects, significant variations were observed in the levels of
most of the trace elements. The serum levels of almost all the elements except Fe and Cu were observed to be depressed in
cancer patients with respect to normal subjects. However, this variation was significant only for Ti (P < 0.00005), Cr (P < 0.005), Mn (P < 0.0005), Ni (P < 0.01), Zn (P < 0.000001), and Se (P < 0.05). On the other hand, significant elevations were observed in serum Fe (P < 0.05) and Cu (P < 0.005) levels in cancer patients. The findings presented in this paper give guidelines for future study into the possible
roles and interactions of essential trace elements in the breast carcinogenic process.
Authors:M. Nasrabadi, D. Forghani, I. Shahabi, and R. Shirini
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the central nervous system
for unknown reasons and causes several damages to human body by demyelinating the nerve cells. One of the possible cause of
this disease is the abnormality levels of some trace elements such as Br, Fe, Rb, Sb, As, and Zn in human body. This study
attempts to measure the levels of four trace elements of Br, Fe, Rb, and Zn in the patients’ blood samples and compare them
with control samples from healthy individuals. It should be noted that the objectives set out partly met. According to the
obtained results, the differences between the levels of Br, Fe, and Rb in patients’ blood samples and control was not significant
(P > 0.05). However, the average level of Zn between samples and controls showed a significant difference (P < 0.05). Therefore the lower level of Zn in blood is likely to be a major cause of MS emergence. Furthermore, by using the
concentration level of Zn as indicator, it was revealed that the risk of MS infection rises as the number of pregnancies increase.
Authors:A. Montero, J. Estévez, R. Padilla, and D. López
A study was carried out in Havana City using lichen as monitor of air pollution. The concentration of several trace elements
(Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Pb) in a total of 225 samples was determined by Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (TRXRF),
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV). In addition several Biological Certified
Reference Materials (CRM’s) were analyzed in order to assess the analytical performance of the results. In general a relatively
good agreement was found among the techniques. No significant differences were found between the obtained results and the
certified reference values.
Major, trace and rare earth elements have been measured in sediments of different layers to determine the controls of constituent
minerals on the distribution of elements and sediment deposition environment in the Meghna river delta. The geochemical composition
of sediments was enriched in SiO2, Ca, Mg and Ba and depleted in Al, Fe, Ti, Mn, and Sr relative to PAAS (Post-Archaen Average Shale) value. The X-ray diffraction
and elemental analyses demonstrate the dominant presence of quartz, micas, feldspar, chlorite, amphibole and clay minerals
in sediments. The very low contents of trace elements suggest that the oxic condition was more prevalent during sediment deposition
of Pleistocene-Holocene period and reflect the massive chemical weathering by biogeochemical reactions. The enrichment of
light rare earth elements and La/Yb ratio reflect the intense silicate weathering of crustal materials and the high sediment
depositional rate in the Meghna river delta.
A purely instrumental neutron activation analysis method, using high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with intrinsic Ge and
Ge(Li) detectors, has been used for the analysis of trace elements in copper concentrate samples. Seven rare earth elements
and eight other trace elements were determined with good precision. Standard rocks were also analyzed to check the analytical
procedure, and the results obtained are in good agreement with literature values.
The intake of some “newer” trace elements via the daily diet by Iranian population groups was determined. The total mixed
diets were prepared on the basis of dietary recording. Aluminium and nickel have been measured via atomic absorption spectrometry,
vanadium and tin via radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and scandium via instrumental neutron activation analysis.
The results for the Iranian diets are discussed and compared with corresponding data from other countries. The project has
been performed in the frame of a co-ordinated research project of the International Atomic Energy Agency with participants
from various countries.