In his paper the author deals with the deities depicted on Trajan’s and Marcus Aurelius’ Column with a special regard to the cult of Danuvius/Danube and the winged and bearded god of the rain miracle. The cult of Danuvius is rarely attested epigraphically (and not before the 2nd century AD) and it must be connected to Trajan’s campaign against the Dacians. The rain god is iconographically unique but a figure of a river god among the Dionysiac relief panels of the theatre in Perge dated to Marcus Aurelius’ reign can be its first parallel.
Nowadays Aiton is a small village located in the center part of the Cluj County, between Turda and Cluj-Napoca. At Aiton, during the Roman times, an important rural settlement was established, in close relation with the main road of Roman Dacia. Archaeological investigations in the area of this village were carried out mostly in the last century, but most are accidental discoveries. During the Roman period, Aiton was probably an important rural settlement within the territory of Potaissa, and we suppose that a taberna was set up here. Why? First, because of the distance from Potaissa: 10 Roman miles. Second, because of the discoveries within the territory of the village. My purpose is to analyze, interpret and map all data available. Based on what we know so far, I was able to distinguish two areas with Roman discoveries. One is located in the northern part of the village, close to the Roman road. I reached the conclusion that in this part of the village we should locate the former taberna. The other area in located in the eastern part of the village. I concluded that we should locate the rural settlement here. All in all, these data allowed me to conclude that Aiton represented, during Roman times, an important settlement between Potaissa and Napoca.
The concise history of Rome, covering the 700 years from Romulus until Augustus and composed by an author with the cognomen Florus, is ranked since the Renaissance among the most often printed and most widely read ancient Latin prose works. But whereas this small work was until now commonly supposed to have been written by a “L. Annaeus” oder “P. Annius” Florus during the age of the emperor Trajan (or even later), the present article — based on four essays I have published already more than 20 years ago — demonstrates that almost the entire work was originally composed by a contemporary of Augustus, most likely by the same Iulius Florus to whom Horace addressed two famous letters (I 3 and II 2). We must, indeed, distinguish between two different versions of this work, namely on the one hand the genuine text edited by Iulius Florus, whose name appears as the author in the very important Codex Bambergensis (9th century), immediately after the consecration of the deceased Augustus (17 Sept. 14), and on the other hand a second edition prepared by an anonymous redactor in the era of Trajan (98–117), which was considered a revival of the Golden Age of Augustus; in addition, some further editions appeared later in the second century. All these new editions of Iulius Florus’s work contain just two crucial differences from his original text, namely two short interpolations in Iulius Florus’s preface: the short colon ut postea velut consenuerit, inserted into § 4, and the last sentence (§ 8), added to the original preface. Both interpolations, however, stand in marked contrast to the entire context of Florus’s composition. The main purpose of my article is, therefore, a reconstruction of the original form of Iulius Florus’s historical work, which contained not four or two books (as it is now generally assumed), but only one book, presented as a brevis tabella or breviarium of Roman history.
Considering unit history, arguments of style analysis and palaeographical reasons, 47 the Bölcske gravestone should also be dated to the early reign of Emperor Trajan. Research history of style analysis on stelae 48 set for soldiers of the ala Frontoniana
The attestations of the cult of the Goddess Nemesis in the Balkan-Danubian provincies from the beginning of the 2nd century AD do not seem to respond to a cultural, private and spontaneous, need of the local population. These evidences presumably appear on one hand as the consequence of a political and ideological project based on the achievement and on legitimation of Trajan’s imperium in these social contexts, and on the other hand as a response, an “Akzeptanz”, an acceptance on behalf of the Balkan-Danubian elites of Trajan’s propaganda.
Between 24 July and 26 October 2008 a large exhibition was held in the British Museum in London with the title
Hadrian: Empire and Conflict
. It was the exhibition to give us the idea of reflecting on how Hadrian was adopted by Trajan. Trajan’s wife the Empress Plotina backed Hadrian’s career in every respect. Referring to Hadrian it is more appropriate to use the word
. The present study draws attention to the word
as used in Gellius’ work. (Gellius,
5. 19). Starting from the etymology of the word it can be claimed that
could only happen after putting on the
. It was one of the conditions of
had to be at least 60 years old. Trajan reached that age in 113, so the adoption could not happen before that. Hadrian had been considered to be Trajan’s successor since he became a
in Syria, so the takeover of power was not a result of court conspiracy.
Aelius Caesar’s Pannonia coin in light of Hadrian’s succession politics. Pannonia province’s first securely identified personification is found on one of Aelius Caesar’s coin reverses, minted in 137. A.D. Its occurrence can be explained with that he was the newly designated heir to the throne, who was sent to govern both Pannonia Inferior and Superior. Its iconography that is based on Hadrian’s Concordia exercituum coin from 119–120/121, has a clear message, which calls upon the inhabitants of the empire and especially the soldiers to swear allegiance and loyalty to the new heir. It is interesting to see that both Trajan and Hadrian were in command of a large number of troops, when they came to power, just like Aelius. Putting the designated heir in charge of a considerable military strength was a well working way to secure that the throne was passed on to whom it was intended to. Pannonia’s further importance lay in its strategic geographical position, because it was a territory that was in charge of a large army, but was also located closest to Rome.
The rituals carried out on the occasion of the establishment of a new Roman city prove the fact that there was a prescribed regulation. The location, orientation, as well as the scenography, translates into facts gestures and human processions with sacred character; these are the expression of a symbolic geography of religious type.
The erection of sacred buildings in Colonia Sarmizegetusa was carried out during the reign of Trajan (its founder) and Severus Alexander. For the following period (Maximinus-Aurelianus), the archaeological evidence suggests the fact that the emphasis was not placed on constructing new religious buildings, but on restoring the already existing ones. The expression of religious piety persisted, and one can make reference again to the archaeological evidence, more particular to shrines, and statues. This context proves the fact that the religious life continued its cycle. However, in AD 235, at the latest, Sarmizegetusa witnessed the construction of the most numerous temples. It is noteworthy to mention that this construction boom coincides with the period when Sarmizegetusa is granted the title of Metropolis.
This paper presents the pottery originating from three groups of objects found in close association – in a well, a cistern and a burnt layer –, and the most characteristic vessel types as well as all the lamps found during the series of excavations at the site. The well excavated in the eastern part of the villa yielded pottery dating from the second half of the AD 1st and the beginning of the 2nd century. Only 0.5% of this ensemble was imported pottery, 6.4% was thin-walled and color-coated pottery, and 91.4% coarse pottery. In addition to these, the deposit contained a few ampullae and incense burners (turibulum). Only one piece of North-African red slip ware was found in the fill of the cistern located in the middle of the northern courtyard and the channel leading there. Here 10% of the pottery finds was composed of fine ware, and the amount of coarse pottery was significant. The fill of the well established in the later phase of the villa dated from the second half of the AD 3rd century. However, the pottery found in it is composed of types characteristic for the AD 1st and 2nd centuries – if its chronology can be reconstructed at all. Amphora fragments from Hispania and a piece of samian ware form Dr. 29 from La Graufesenque was unearthed in a burnt layer in the southern part of the early villa, as well as household ware dating from the period of the Flavian dynasty and the reign of Trajan. Here fine ware constituted 7.8% of the pottery finds. Vessels that were intact or could be refit were found atop the terrazzo floor in the central part of the villa, which might have been still in use when the villa was destroyed.
–238). Online 2017 . ( https://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/ ) IX Hostein, Antony–Mairat, Jerome: Roman Provincial Coinage IX. From Trajan Decius to Uranius Antoninus (AD 249–254) . London 2016 . Vaday , Andrea 1989 Die sarmatischen Denkmäler des Komitats