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Patent statistics are a frequently used innovation indicator for the description and analysis of technological strengths and weaknesses, both on the macro and the micro level. Patent data has a broad coverage, high reliability, allows a very differentiated perspective and the data has become easier in availability and accessibility. Especially when cross country comparisons and comparative assessments are intended, a deep knowledge and understanding of patent systems is required. In the 1990s Triadic patents, which were able to balance the home advantage of domestic applicants/inventors. An increasing internationalisation and globalisation makes it also necessary to adapt the patent analyses to this new world order. In this paper the so called Transnational patents are suggested, which allows to grasp the new relations and relative positions between the industrialised, industrialising and emerging countries. The existing concepts are presented and discussed and contrasted against the concept of Transnational Patents.

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. More recently, Frietsch and Schmoch ( 2010 ) compared patent counts based on national office filings, EPO filings, PCT filings and triadic families. They recommend the use of “transnational patents”, defined as families using either EPO or PCT

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. Frietsch , R , Schmoch , U 2009 Transnational patents and international markets . Scientometrics 82 : 185 – 200 10.1007/s11192-009-0082-2 . Gambardella , A , Harhoff , D , Verspagen , B 2008 The

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