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Molnár, J. (1992): Területi-közigazgatási felosztás Erdélyben (1876-1968) [Regional-public administrational system in Transylvania (1876-1968)]. Korunk, 9. Nyárád kistérség

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Product of a craft with mediaeval roots in Western and Central Europe, Haban pottery represents an exceptional field in the art of clay modelling. The article presents a short history of Hutterite settlement in Transylvania, the manufacturing technology used for the pottery ware and the wonderful pieces of Haban pottery from the collection of the Emil Sigerus Museum of Saxon Ethnography, some of them belonging to the first period of Haban pottery from Alvinc (Vinţu de Jos, Romania) 1671, but also examples of post-Haban ware from the 18th century.

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The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of changing ethnic patterns in Transylvania since the fall of Communism in Romania in 1989. The ethnic structure of this multicultural province was dominated by Hungarians, Romanians and Germans from the early 13th century until the middle of 20th century and by Romanians, Hungarians and Roma since 1989. The natural decrease and the increasing (e)migration of the population associated with the economic, social and political changes of the epoch has led to considerable changes in the ethnic structure of Transylvania. The most striking ethnic changes are the accelerated decrease of the population of the national minorities (mostly of Germans and Hungarians) and the dynamic demographic growth of the Roma population. Nearly half of the Hungarians live in municipalities where they represent an absolute majority of the local population (e.g., the Székely land and parts of Bihor-Satu Mare-Sǎlaj counties). As a result of their dynamic increase (25% between 1992 and 2002), the Roma community might outnumber the Hungarians in the decade to come, becoming the second largest ethnic group (to the Romanians) of Transylvania (according to estimates and not census data).

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Károly Viski (Torda, 1882-Budapest, 1945) was an outstanding figure in European ethnology in the years between 1920–1945. He was born in Transylvania and trained as a secondary school teacher of Hungarian and Latin at the university of Kolozsvár. As a young teacher he taught in schools in Transylvanian towns and did research on the history of the Hungarian language and dialectology. In 1920 he joined the staff of the Museum of Ethnography in Budapest and became an expert in decorative arts, material culture and European ethnology. His book on the folk art of Transylvania written in the early 1920s was published in many languages. He played a role in the choice of a European, Scandinavian orientation for Hungarian ethnology and in strengthening ties with Sweden, Finland, Estonia and Poland. He was the spiritus rector and editor of the big four-volume synthesis published in the 1930s which presented traditional Hungarian material culture and folklore in a broad European context. He devoted special attention to research on the cultural heritage of the peoples of Transylvania, the co-existence of the Hungarian, German and Romanian ethnic groups and the history of cultural exchange processes. He did a great deal for museums, collections and exhibitions of ethnography. Between 1940–45 as professor at the university of Kolozsvár and later of Budapest he trained a whole series of outstanding students (e.g. Károly Kós, János Kodolányi, Ágnes Kovács, Mária Kresz, Károly Gaál, László Vajda).

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La Transylvanie s’est toujours trouvée à la croisée de l’Orient et de l’Occident. Dans le domaine de l’architecture religieuse, les années 1400, sous le règne de Sigismond du Luxembourg, les influences croisées ont été particulièrement riches, à travers les styles et techniques du Trecento et du gothique international, d’une part, et de l’art byzantin, d’autre part. En s’appuyant sur les recherches archéologiques et restaurations réalisées récemment, Zsombor Jékely établit un état des lieux et propose quelques hypothèses sur les échanges entre ateliers, tout en abordant la question des artistes réalisant des travaux pour des églises de l’autre confession.

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“The Impact of 1956 on the Hungarians of Transylvania”, provides a 50-year retrospective analysis of the political consequences of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 on the Hungarians in neighboring Romania. It focuses on the inter-ethnic knock-on effects in the Romanian Workers Party, the “Hungarian/Mures-Hungarian Autonomous Region”of Transylvania, and the cultural institutions of the Hungarian minority. It links these developments to present-day Romanian-Hungarian relations, both on the interstate and the intrastate levels.

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This study is about how Transylvania, the multiethnic region that was once part of the Hungarian Kingdom and later the Habsburg Empire and the Hungarian part of the Dual Monarchy and which since 1920 has been part of Romania, was rediscovered by Hungarians over the past twenty years. More precisely, it examines what the Transylvania that citizens of Hungary discovered and created was like in Hobsbawm’s sense of the invention of traditions. The theoretical focus of my analysis is the symbolic construction of places through discourses and performative acts of identification and occupation. My primary claim is that the restoration of a territorial approach to the nation, a national re-territorialization, is taking place in rediscovered Transylvania, accompanied by a new discourse of national authenticity.

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Plankton samples collected from a yellow watered bog pool of the mesotrophic “Călăţele Pădurii” peat bog (Romanian Western Mountains, Transylvania), exhibited an outstandingly rich Mallomonas population. The observations carried out by light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the population belongs to Mallomonas intermedia Kisselev. Based on the presence of lance head bristles, distributed all over the cell armour (except few anterior collar, unilaterally serrated ones), it became evident that the population belong to the nominate variety (var. intermedia). Mallomonas intermedia var. saliceaensis formerly described from Transylvania differs by the type variety by the presence of exclusively serrated bristles. The present finding proved that Mallomonas intermedia could not be properly identified at infraspecific level solely based on the ultra structure of scales, without knowing the structure of bristles, too.

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In spite of the remarkable political mobilization and disciplined ethnic voting of the Hungarian minority in Romania, major political objectives, seen by the political elite of the community as critical for the cultural reproduction of Hungarians in Romania, have proven to be unreachable since 1989 through the instruments of participation in the country’s political life. The paper explores the historical and contemporary reasons that contributed to this failure, and identifies conditions that could trigger a change. Various political projects of the Hungarians in Transylvania seeking integration on their own terms into the Romanian state since 1920, together with the circumstances that lead to their failure, are critically assessed. Based on considerable research conducted between 1995 and 2006, conflicting identity structures and competing ethnopolitical strategies are identified that divide the Romanian political community along ethnic fault-lines. The consequences of the divide are evaluated from the perspective of normative political philosophy and an answer is offered to the question which refers to the grounds on which Hungarians in Transylvania could (or could not) be considered part of the Romanian political community. The paper concludes by identifying alternative ways out of the current situation.

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This fieldwork-based ethnochoreological study focuses on traditional dances of Hungarian Romani/Gypsy communities in Transylvania (Romania) practiced to electronic pop-folk music. This kind of musical accompaniment is applied not only to the fashionable Romanian manele, but also to their traditional dances (named csingerálás1, cigányos.) Thus Romanian electronic pop-folk music including Romani/Gypsy elements provides the possibility for the survival of Transylvanian Hungarian Romani/Gypsy dance tradition both at community events and public discoes. The continuity in dance idiom is maintained through changes in musical idiom — a remarkable phenomenon, worthy of further discussion from the point of view of the continuity of cultural tradition.

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