Authors:G. Sramkó, G. Gulyás, G. Matus, Sz. Rudnóy, Z. Illyés, Z. Bratek, and A. Molnár V.
The taxonomy of the genus
, in which two European species, a smaller eastern
and a more robust western
are included, has been controversial since the description of the eastern species in 1821. Nuclear encoded ribosomal DNA ITS1 and the entire chloroplast DNA ITS were sequenced from several European populations, from France to the Ukraine, and the leaf width of mature living individuals was measured and analysed by ANOVA and Tukey-test. Although the studied DNA regions proved to be invariable, leaf width shows extreme variability. We found no correlation between the leaf size of the individuals and the geographical position of the populations, and in addition, the sequenced DNA regions showed total uniformity. Thus, our results do not support the division of the genus
into two taxa, at least in the sampled area. The formerly described size variants can be treated taxonomically at the
Authors:Yousry M. El-Hawary, Basmah El-Sayed, Gehan Abd-Alhakem, and Fatma M. Ibrahim
Oral manifestations recorded for congenital heart disease (CHD) patients include teeth hypoplasia and high caries incidence. These observations suggested that the enamel and dentin of the teeth may be altered, increasing the risk for caries incidence. This study was designed to investigate the eff ect of CHD on the ultrastructure and composition of deciduous sound teeth.
Thirty sound exfoliated human deciduous incisor teeth were selected for this study. They were divided into three groups, Group I (control) from healthy children (n = 6), Group II from acyanotic CHD children (n = 12) and Group III from cyanotic CHD children (n = 12). Each tooth was longitudinally sectioned, providing enough specimens for ultrastructure and chemical analysis using ESEM/EDAX. The results of ESEM/EDAX and dentin image analysis were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey's test.
Enamel of groups II and III showed increased dissolution and irregular orientation of enamel prisms. Orifices of dentinal tubules demonstrated widening and irregular outlines, also lateral branching increased markedly. Image analysis of dentin ESEM photomicrographs showed a highly significant increase in surface area of dentinal tubules. Decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels was statistically significant (P < 0.05).
CHDs affect the structure and chemical composition of deciduous teeth.
% methanol with a flow rate of 1 mL min −1 and column temperature of 25 °C, and UV– Visible detector fixed at 260 nm. 2.6 Statistical analysis Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied and comparison was made through Tukey's test with the least significant
of these repeated terms on the distribution of the data. Diagnostic plots were created to test the assumptions of the models. As a post-hoc test, the Tukeytest was performed using the glht function in the multcomp package, to compare the donation
Authors:Sara Asadi, Parvin Farzanegi, and Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani
using the One-Way ANOVA: Post Hoc-Tukeytest. SPSS software (IBM, version 19, USA) was applied for analysis of data. A P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results Chondroblasts and chondrocytes were arranged regularly inside the cavities in the
Authors:Jorge López-Beceiro, Ramón Artiaga, Carlos Gracia, Javier Tarrío-Saavedra, Salvador Naya, and José Luis Mier
Tukeytest (see Table 4 ) [ 18 ]. Table 4 shows the OOT means for each different group found by Tukeytest. Each group statistically different from the others corresponds to one different oil class. However, the other variables found no significant
Authors:Karina Ilona Hidas, Csaba Németh, Anna Visy, Adrienn Tóth, László Ferenc Friedrich, and Ildikó Csilla Nyulas-Zeke
which groups differ. In case of equal variances, Tukey-test was used, and in case of not equal variances, Games-Howell test was used to decide which groups differ ( Tabachnick and Fidell, 2013 ). Table 1. Results of the homogeneity test (Levene's test
Authors:K. Berisha, H. Bytyçi, Zs. Mednyánszky, E. Kiss, and L. Simon-Sarkadi
for conductivity were calculated by a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test at P < 0.05. On the other hand, significant differences between the means for protein, lactose, fat, total solids, amino acids, and biogenic amines
Authors:F.S. Sajjadi, F. Aghighi, Z. Vahidinia, A. Azami-Tameh, M. Salami, and S.A. Talaei
data are expressed as means ± SEM. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the spatial learning data. The probe trial, RT-PCR, and corticosterone assay data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA. Tukey's test was applied as post hoc. All