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The taxonomy of the genus Bulbocodium , in which two European species, a smaller eastern (B. versicolor) and a more robust western (B. vernum) are included, has been controversial since the description of the eastern species in 1821. Nuclear encoded ribosomal DNA ITS1 and the entire chloroplast DNA ITS were sequenced from several European populations, from France to the Ukraine, and the leaf width of mature living individuals was measured and analysed by ANOVA and Tukey-test. Although the studied DNA regions proved to be invariable, leaf width shows extreme variability. We found no correlation between the leaf size of the individuals and the geographical position of the populations, and in addition, the sequenced DNA regions showed total uniformity. Thus, our results do not support the division of the genus Bulbocodium into two taxa, at least in the sampled area. The formerly described size variants can be treated taxonomically at the forma level.

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Oral manifestations recorded for congenital heart disease (CHD) patients include teeth hypoplasia and high caries incidence. These observations suggested that the enamel and dentin of the teeth may be altered, increasing the risk for caries incidence. This study was designed to investigate the eff ect of CHD on the ultrastructure and composition of deciduous sound teeth.


Thirty sound exfoliated human deciduous incisor teeth were selected for this study. They were divided into three groups, Group I (control) from healthy children (n = 6), Group II from acyanotic CHD children (n = 12) and Group III from cyanotic CHD children (n = 12). Each tooth was longitudinally sectioned, providing enough specimens for ultrastructure and chemical analysis using ESEM/EDAX. The results of ESEM/EDAX and dentin image analysis were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey's test.


Enamel of groups II and III showed increased dissolution and irregular orientation of enamel prisms. Orifices of dentinal tubules demonstrated widening and irregular outlines, also lateral branching increased markedly. Image analysis of dentin ESEM photomicrographs showed a highly significant increase in surface area of dentinal tubules. Decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels was statistically significant (P < 0.05).


CHDs affect the structure and chemical composition of deciduous teeth.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: Cristina Sánchez López, C. Barriga, A. Rodríguez, L. Franco, M. Rivero, and J. Cubero

We describe a chronobiological study of the effects of the oral administration of the essential amino acid L-methionine to common quail ( Coturnix coturnix ). This amino acid is a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is responsible for controlling and maintaining wakefulness through the ventrolateral pre-optic area of the hypothalamus and controlling the REM sleep in the nucleus reticularis pontinus oralis (NRPO). The quail model was chosen as these birds are monophasic and active by day, as are humans. The animals were kept under a constant 12h:12h light/dark cycle, fed ad libitum and housed in separate cages equipped for activity recording. Methionine was administered daily (1 h before lights off) for 1 week (chronic treatment), with the birds divided into 4 groups: a capsule with 15 mg of L-methionine (Met15 treatment group); a capsule with 30 mg of L-methionine (Met30 treatment group); a capsule with methylcellulose as excipient (control group); no capsule (basal group). In addition, we compared the first day of treatment (acute experiment) with the basal and control results. Actimetry (DAS24©) was used to quantify the activity data, and the sleep/wake rhythm was analyzed using the Ritme© software package. The statistical analysis of the activity data was descriptive (± SD) and inferential (Tukey test). The data showed increased (p<0.05) mean diurnal activity pulses in the Met30 group versus the other groups in both the acute and the chronic experiments. No changes were found in nocturnal activity. The chronobiological analysis showed a significant increase in the MESOR parameter of the Met30 group in both chronic and acute experiments versus the other groups. The acrophase showed no significant changes, in all groups being at around 13:45 h. In conclusion, the oral administration of L-methionine increased diurnal activity; probably due to the stimulating neuromodulatory action of acetylcholine.

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% methanol with a flow rate of 1 mL min −1 and column temperature of 25 °C, and UV– Visible detector fixed at 260 nm. 2.6 Statistical analysis Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied and comparison was made through Tukey's test with the least significant

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of these repeated terms on the distribution of the data. Diagnostic plots were created to test the assumptions of the models. As a post-hoc test, the Tukey test was performed using the glht function in the multcomp package, to compare the donation

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using the One-Way ANOVA: Post Hoc-Tukey test. SPSS software (IBM, version 19, USA) was applied for analysis of data. A P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results Chondroblasts and chondrocytes were arranged regularly inside the cavities in the

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Jorge López-Beceiro, Ramón Artiaga, Carlos Gracia, Javier Tarrío-Saavedra, Salvador Naya, and José Luis Mier

Tukey test (see Table 4 ) [ 18 ]. Table 4 shows the OOT means for each different group found by Tukey test. Each group statistically different from the others corresponds to one different oil class. However, the other variables found no significant

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Karina Ilona Hidas, Csaba Németh, Anna Visy, Adrienn Tóth, László Ferenc Friedrich, and Ildikó Csilla Nyulas-Zeke

which groups differ. In case of equal variances, Tukey-test was used, and in case of not equal variances, Games-Howell test was used to decide which groups differ ( Tabachnick and Fidell, 2013 ). Table 1. Results of the homogeneity test (Levene's test

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: K. Berisha, H. Bytyçi, Zs. Mednyánszky, E. Kiss, and L. Simon-Sarkadi

for conductivity were calculated by a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test at P < 0.05. On the other hand, significant differences between the means for protein, lactose, fat, total solids, amino acids, and biogenic amines

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data are expressed as means ± SEM. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the spatial learning data. The probe trial, RT-PCR, and corticosterone assay data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA. Tukey's test was applied as post hoc. All

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