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The toxicity of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil and its formulation (Melissacide) were evaluated against eggs and females of two predatory phytoseiid mites, Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias Henriot) and Neoseiulus barkeri (Hughes), using direct spray. Results indicate that both tested materials were potent on predatory females than egg stage. Typhlodromips swirskii was proved to be more sensitive to the oil and formulation than N. barkeri.

Females mortality were (62-100%) in T. swirskii, and (46-69%) in N. barkeri, when both predatory mites were sprayed with LC50 and LC90 of the oil and Melissacide reported on Tetranychus urticae Koch. Females of both predators were suffered from reduction in food consumption when sprayed with two sublethal concentrations of Melissacide, while insignificant differences reported in daily number of eggs deposited by females of T. swirskii, when sprayed with its LC25 value of Melissacide and control.

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predation in the phytoseiid mites Typhlodromips swirskii , Euseius scutalis and Typhlodromus athiasae (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Acarina 17, 223–229. Abdel-Khalek A. Cannibalism and

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The predacious mite Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias-Henriot) completed its life-span when fed on the motile stages of the mango bud mite Aceria mangiferae Sayed, the mango rust mite Metaculus mangiferae (Attiah), the leaf coating mite Cisaberoptus kenyae Keifer and nymphs of mango red mite Oligonychus mangiferus (Rahman and Sabra) in the laboratory at different temperatures and relative humidities. The increase of different temperatures and decrease relative humidities from 25°C and 60% to 30°C and 55% and 35°C and 50% shortened development and increased reproduction and prey consumption. Life table parameters indicated that feeding T. swirskii on A. mangiferae led to the highest reproduction rate (rm = 0.216 females/female/day), while feeding on O. mangiferus gave the lowest reproduction rate (rm= 0.183) at 35°C and 50% R. H. Different prey species of eriophyid mango mites, especially A. mangiferae , have a high nutritional value for T. swirskii , as a facultative predator, than the tetranychid mango mite.

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Juvenile survival, predation and development in Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias-Henriot), Euseius scutalis (Athias-Henriot) and Typhlodromus athiasae Porath and Swirski feeding on con- and heterospecific phytoseiid immatures were investigated in the laboratory at 32 ± 2 °C and 70 ± 5% RH. Larvae of all phytoseiid studied do not feed at all to reach the subsequent life stage. More than 90% of T. swirskii and E. scutalis protonymphs preying on larvae of both heterospecific larvae reached the adult stage. The majority (approximately 98%) of T. athiasae protonymphs feeding on larvae of T. swirskii died before reaching the deutonymphal stage, while when preying on E. scutalis , all individuals reached to adulthood. The mean developmental time of T. swirskii from protonymphal stage to adulthood was 2.4 days when feeding on T athiasae and 2.2 days when feeding on E. scutalis . When protonymphs of E. scutalis feeding on larvae of T. swirskii or T. athiasae , completed juvenile development (mean developmental time 2.9 and 2.5 days, respectively).When protonymphs of T. swirskii and T. athiasae held without food, all survived approximately 3 to 4 days and then died before reaching to deutonymphal stage. Unfed immatures of E. scutalis lived longer than the corresponding stages of T. athiasae and T. swirskii (approximately 5 to 7 days). Immatures of T. swirskii and E. scutalis exhibited higher predation rates than T. athiasae when fed on heterospecific prey. Cannibalizing immatures of all 3 phytoseiid species were able to reach adulthood. The present study indicates that phytoseiid immatures are suitable prey for developing stages of polyphagous phytoseiids. Since E. scutalis, T. athiasae and T. swirskii inhabiting the same plant species, their immatures can be regarded as potential prey for competitive phytoseiids in times of food scarcity.

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11 85 92 Momen, F. M. and Abdel-Khalek, A. (2009a): Juvenile survival and development of Typhlodromips swirskii, Euseius scutalis and

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. Cont. 44 , 372 – 379 . Midthassel , A. , Leather , S. R. and Baxter , I. H. ( 2013 ): Life table parameters and capture success ratio studies of Typhlodromips swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the factitious prey Suidasia medanensis (Acari

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Eight phytoseiid species were tested to evaluate their potential as predators of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) eggs as an alternative/natural food source under laboratory conditions. Predatory phytoseiid mites were, namely: Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias-Henriot), Euseius scutalis (Athias-Henriot), Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski and Amitai), Neoseiulus barkeri (Hughes), Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), Phytoseius finitimus Ribaga, Proprioseiopsis badri (Yousef and El-Borolossy) and Amblyseius largoensis (Muma).Immatures survival of tested phytoseiid species were low on eggs of T. absoluta and all failed to develop to adulthood.Adult females of C. negevi, A. largoensis and N. barkeri were able to feed and sustain oviposition on eggs of T. absoluta. A diet of insect eggs provided the shortest oviposition period and adult longevity of C. negevi, while A. largoensis showed the longest corresponding periods. The total and daily number of insect eggs consumed was significantly higher in N. barkeri and C. negevi than in A. largoensis. Similarly N. barkeri laid significantly higher number of eggs (47.39 eggs/female) than that deposited by C. negevi and A. largoensis (41.0 and 30.7 eggs / female). The sex ratio of the progeny was strongly female biased and ranged: (females/total=61.8−75.4%) when insect eggs were provided for C. negevi, N. barkeri and A. largoensis.Survival of adult females of T. swirskii, P. badri, N. californicus, E. scutalis and P. finitimus were low on T. absoluta eggs and all died within 2–4 days.

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The biology of Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias-Henriot), Typhlodromus negevi Swirski et Amitai and Amblyseius denmarki Zaher et El-Borolossy was studied using Aculus fockeui (Nalepa and Trouessart) active stages as food source. For T. swirskii , development was faster than in A. denmarki and T. negevi . In A. denmarki , the oviposition period was longer and reproduction was higher than in both predacious mites. A total of 49.4, 43.0 and 32.3 eggs per female, respectively, were obtained when A. denmarki, T. swirskii and T. negevi were fed on active stages of the peach silver mite. A diet of A. fockeui provided the highest female longevity and mean total fecundity, which resulted in the highest net reproductive rate (Ro = 35.568) for A. denmarki . The highest intrinsic rate of increase (r m = 0.244), finite rate of increase (λ = 1.2766) and shortest generation time (T = 13.784) were recorded for T. swirskii . The sex ratio of the progeny was strongly female biased (female/total = 0.72, 0.68) when active stages of A. fockeui were provided for A. denmarki and T. swirskii .

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The chemical composition of essential oil extracted from leaves of the medicinal plant Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds growing in Egypt, were determined through Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry ( GC/MS). The analyses revealed that the major component of M. longifolia was Monterpene ketone (piperitone oxide). Mentha longifolia was potent for the pest Tetranychus urticae Koch with a significant increase in repellency. In addition, it exhibited strong oviposition deterrence to the pest based on a 99.4% reduction of the total number of eggs on leaf discs treated with the oil. The LC50 values of M. longifolia against eggs, nymphs and females of T. urticae by fumigant application, were 2.95, 3.47, 3.74 μL / L, while the LC90 values were 8.99, 9.41, 11.01 μL/ L, respectively.

The toxicity of M. longifolia oil by fumigant application to females and eggs of 3 predatory phytoseiid mites was tested. Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) is extremely insusceptible to M. longifolia oil than the pest T. urticae and both phytoseiid mites, Neoseiuls barkeri (Hughes) and Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias Henriot) under laboratory conditions. When both stages of tested predatory mites, exposed to fumigant of LC50 and LC90 μL/L values reported on T. urticae, female’s mortality of N. californicus was lesser than that reported on N. barkeri and T. swirskii.

These show that the fumigant toxicity of M. longifolia oil has the highest lethal activity to the pest T. urticae and the least to the predatory mite N. californicus. Results indicated that the mode of delivery of the essential oil was largely a result of action in the vapor phase via respiratory system. Data was suggested that M. longifolia oil have the potential agent to be used in the maintainable management of T. urticae combined with N. californicus.

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. Abou-Awad , B. A. , Metwally , A. and Al-Azzazy , M. ( 2010 ): Typhlodromips swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) a predator of eriophyid and tetranychid mango mites in Egypt . Acta Phytopathol. et Entomol. Hung. 45 , 135 – 148

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