Authors:Deqiao Tian, Yunzhou Yu, Yumin Wang, and Tao Zheng
to several BDAPs and CEHTPs published from 1996 to 2010 by scientists from the UnitedStates and China identified by searches of the Science Citation Index Expanded database ( http://apps.isiknowledge.com ). The search scope comprised the “title” with
Using Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) data, this paper calculated institutional self citations rates (ISCRs) for
96 of the top research universities in the United States from 2005–2007. Exhibiting similar temporal patterns of author and
journal self-citations, the ISCR was 29% in the first year post-publication, and decreased significantly in the second year
post-publication (19%). Modeling the data via power laws revealed total publications and citations did not correlate with
the ISCR, but did correlate highly with ISCs. California Institute of Technology exhibited the highest ISCR at 31%. Academic
and cultural factors are discussed in relation to ISCRs.
Radon in the indoor environment is a recognized environmental hazard. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established several programs to develop, demonstrate, and transfer radon mitigation technology. Administration and management of these programs are shared by EPA's Office of Radiation Programs and Office of Research and Development. One measure of success of these programs is that, by 1990, approximately 90,000 houses have been professionally mitigated in the United States. Future success depends, in part, upon strong motivational campaigns conducted in local communities with regional and national support.
This article offers a quantitative model for site selection by high technology manufacturing firms. In the past, site selection studies have usually been qualitative in nature, and very subjective. This is an attempt to introduce a more objective quantitative approach. The site selection factors most important to high technology manufacturing firms were identified, ranked and weighted based on a US Joint Economic Committe survey of such firms. The eight most important factors were: the availability of technical and professional workers, labor costs, tax climate, academic institutions, cost of living, transportation for people, and access to markets. Demographic data on these factors were collected and analyzed for 32 developing high technology areas in the United States. By using the quantitative model, a score was developed for each area, allowing them to be ranked as R & D manufacturing environments. This model should prove a useful tool for both regional planners and high-tech companies seeking to relocate.
The twentieth century was undoubtedly the bloodiest hundred years in the history of humanity. In this final century of the second millennium more humans suffered from various state-sponsored programs and institutions of mass murder than during the whole stretch of written century. In the twentieth century tens of millions of humans fell victim to these so-called “redeeming” religious and political ideologies. The bloodiest of these ideologies included: (1) an extreme form of nationalism that culminated in racism; (2) applied Marxism that hid under the mantle of Bolshevism and Stalinism; (3) national socialism that manifested itself in Fascism and Nazism; and finally (4) the recently emerging Fundamentalist Islam that attempted to tear down the structure and achievements of Western Christian Civilization. These “redeeming ideologies” competed against each other in their efforts to torture, torment, and annihilate tens of millions, perhaps hundreds of millions of human beings. The best known among these mass exterminations is undoubtedly the Holocaust, which resulted in the torturous death of six million Jews or alleged Jews, among them several hundred-thousand Hungarians. This centrally planned and meticulously executed extermination process is so well known that nowadays it is part of general human consciousness everywhere in the world. Sadly, this does not apply to the other 20th-century mass extermination known as the Gulag, which is not part of that consciousness. In point of fact, one still encounters scholars who don’t even believe that the Gulag had ever existed. While Holocaust-research is pursued in the United States at several dozen universities, museums, libraries and various other research centers, this does not apply to the Gulag, which is hardly known to the general public. This is also true for American university students, of whom — based on my own experiences — less than five percent is aware of this modern form of slavery and mass extermination. The goal of this paper is to summarize briefly the type of Gulag-research pursued in the United States, which — in absence of specialized research institutes — is pursued mostly by individual scholars. Toward the end of this study, reference is also made to the “Gulag-consciousness” and “Gulag-research” in Hungary — which also leaves much to be desired.
.H. Ritters, J. D. Wickham, R. D. Tankersley Jr., R. V. O'Neill, D. J. Chaloud, E. R. Smith, A. C. Neale. 1997. An Ecological Assessment of the UnitedStates Mid-Atlantic Region: A Landscape Atlas. EPA 600-R-97-130, UnitedStates Environmental Protection
The outbreak of war is generally thought to shift the fields in which research is conducted. As a result, military conflict has historically been credited with being the catalyst which has caused decisive technological advances. It is also generally suggested that warfare has a systematic impact on the intensity of inventive activity. Most scholars have claimed that wars increase inventiveness, although a few argue that conflict is a hinderance to research. This question has not received extensive empirical examination. Using United States data, we show that a basic pattern is repeatedly observed. Immediately after the outbreak of a war, there is a significant decline in inventiveness, which is followed by a marked surge. The average net result is a virtual negation of the two trends.
In this paper we analyze the (historical) co-evolution of technological development and economic progress (by relating public
and private R&D investment, patenting, and corporate profitability). We relate to the work ofSchmookler(1966),Griliches(1990),Pakes&Griliches(1980)
andPakes(1986) who all have studied the techno-economic interplay by considering patents as in indicator of technological
performance. We use United States industry and government data over the period 1953-1998 (45 years). Co-evolution analysis
over this period reveals a strong interdependency among the variables. Patent evolution is strongly related to the development
of private R&D and corporate profitability; the levels of public and private R&D expenditure in combination with the level
of technological output (i.e. patents) have a strong predictive and explanatory power towards corporate profitability (R2 value of 94.9%). Causality tests reveal a joint determination between R&D investment and corporate profitability (L=2; p<0.01).
One hundred and sixty-nine universities, comprising three separate samples from Britain, Canada, and the United States were evaluated in terms of their productivity across all disciplines. The 1977Arts and Humanities, Social Science, andScience Citation Indices were used as the basis for counting the total number of publications from each of the universities. The 10 overall most productive universities were Harvard University; the University of Texas; the University of California, Los Angeles; the University of London, England; the University of Wisconsin; the University of Illinois; the University of Minnesota; the University of California, Berkeley; Stanford University; and the University of Washington, Seattle. Fifteen of the most productive 100 universities were from the United Kingdom while eleven were from Canada. Additional data were collected including: the revenue of the university, the year the university was founded, the number of subscriptions to current periodicals, the number of bound volumes in the library, the aptitude scores and number of both graduate and undergraduate students, the total number of faculty members, and the number of publications of, reputational rating, and citations to, the faculty members in the psychology departments. A powerful general factor was found to permeate the more than 30 disparate measures, i.e., those universities that were high on one measure were high on others. This general factor could be labelled a dimension of wealth, quality, or size.