Cities are responsible for about 30% of the energy consumed worldwide. Since 2007 more than 50% of the world population lives in cities, and urbanization is still growing. The energy-efficiency of cities is gaining greater importance today. The paper examines the possibilities of energy consumption reduction and optimization in cities. Various urban and architectural tools are described below that affect indirectly and directly the energy balance of cities. The possible ways of using renewable energy sources in cities have been analyzed. Ways and means of their use is analyzed in on-site, nearby and off-site systems.
GIS-based analysis of energy demand facilitates the planning and implementation of renewable energies in urban space. The process of preparing an urban energy concept concerns many actors and facilities, but increases also the acceptance of the energy transition in the proximity. A calculation of energy potentials in the city of Augsburg (Germany) illustrates an usual way of spatial energy planning.
. Several buildings have enclosed form. It is already confirmed that urban heat island effect has a strong relationship with outdoor thermal comfort and urbanenergy use [ 3 , 4 ]. Decreasing energy use is the requirement of the government of Vienna for