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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Suzana Samaržija-Jovanović, Vojislav Jovanović, Sandra Konstantinović, Gordana Marković, and Milena Marinović-Cincović

Introduction Urea–formaldehyde resins are the most important type of the so-called amino plastic resins. Amino resins are often used to modify properties of other materials. These resins are added during the processing of

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Blaž Likozar, Romana Cerc Korošec, Ida Poljanšek, Primož Ogorelec, and Peter Bukovec

– 888 10.1002/app.26791 . 2. Higuchi , M , Honda , T , Tajima , S , Sakata , I 1992 Behavior and polymeric structures of melamine–urea–formaldehyde resin adhesives. 3. Polymeric

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, KM , Chrissafis , K . Urea-formaldehyde resins characterized by thermal analysis and FTIR method . J Therm Anal Calorim . 2008 ; 92 : 29 – 33 . 10.1007/s10973-007-8731-2 . 9. Testing methods for

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Abstract  

Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins are the most used polycondensation resins today, in manufacturing particleboards. UF resins possess some advantages such as fast curing, good performance in the panel, water solubility and low price. However, the main chemical bonds of the UF resins macromolecules are hydrolysis sensitive. This causes low water and mositure resistance performance and subsequent formaldehyde release from the UF-bonded panels. A multitude of pathways have been explored for the improvement of UF resins’ behavior relating either to their synthesis procedure or application parameters during panel manufacture. In this study, two UF resins (a conventional and an innovative one produced at very low pH and temperature conditions) were analyzed for their specifications and characterized with TG-DTA technique in dynamic heating conditions and FTIR measurements both in their pre-polymer and cured state.

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Abstract  

Thermal behaviour of industrial UF resins modified by low level of melamine was followed by TG-DTA technique on the labsys TM instrument Setaram together with the 13C NMR analysis of resin structure and testing boards in current production at Estonian particleboard factory Pärnu Plaaditehas AS. DTA curve of UF resin which has been cocondensed during synthesis with even low level of melamine shows the shift of condensation exotherm and water evaporation endotherm to considerable higher temperatures. The effect of melamine monomer introduced to UF resin just before curing was compared. The effect of addition of urea as formaldehyde scavenger was studied.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: K. Siimer, P. Christjanson, T. Kaljuvee, T. Pehk, I. Lasn, and I. Saks

Abstract  

The thermal behaviour of MUF resins from different suppliers with different content of melamine was studied, along with the 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis of resin structure and the testing of particleboards in current production at Estonian PB factory Pärnu Plaaditehas AS. The chemical structure of resins from DMSO-d6 solutions was analysed by 13C NMR spectroscopy on a Bruker AMX500 NMR spectrometer. The melamine level in different MUF resins is compared by the ratios of carbonyl carbon of urea and triazine carbon of melamine in 13C NMR spectra. Curing behaviour of MUF resins was studied by stimultaneous TG-DTA techniques on the Labsys™ instrument Setaram. The shape of DTA curves characterisises the resin synthesis procedure by the extent of polymerisation of UF and MF components and is in accordance with structural data.

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Abstract  

TG-DTA analysis method was used to study the curing behaviour of urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive resins in the presence of a wood substrate. The cure process was followed using a Setaram labsysTM instrument in flowing nitrogen atmosphere by varying the ratio of resin and wood. Resin cure was catalysed with 2% of NH4Cl. Curing tests were performed in the open standard platinum crucibles and in the sealed glass capsules. To characterise the reactivity of curing system, the peak temperatures in DTA curve and the mass loss values in TG curve were taken as the apparent indices. The main attention was paid to phenomena which actually take place in curing of UF resins during manufacturing of particleboards. Reactivity of the curing system depends mostly on methylol content of resin and can be adequetly evaluated by the maximum temperature of exothermic peak. The wood substrate has a substantial influence on the resin and water diffusion in system causing the changes in water/resin separation and water evaporation conditions. The water movement in curing adhesive joint was a confusing parameter in determining the peak positions. The rate of mass loss on a wood substrate is higher as compared to curing UF resin alone.

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Abstract  

The results of studies on urea and urotropine product distribution in solutions formed in microspherical nuclear fuel preparation by internal gelation are presented. It is shown that urea, urotropine and formaldehyde, the urotropine hydrolysis product, undergo various conversions in solutions, resulting in methylolurea and urea-formaldehyde resins formation. Results on the influence of acidity on the process as a function of time are presented. The organic content in the resulting solutions and microspheres has been determined.

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Abstract  

Pentaerythritol diphosphonate melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin salt, a novel cheap macromolecular intumescent flame retardants (IFR), was synthesized, and its structure was a caged bicyclic macromolecule containing phosphorus characterized by IR. Epoxy resins (EP) were modified with IFR to get the flame retardant EP, whose flammability and burning behavior were characterized by UL 94 and limiting oxygen index (LOI). 25 mass% of IFR were doped into EP to get 27.2 of LOI and UL 94 V-0. The thermal properties of epoxy resins containing IFR were investigated with thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). Activation energy for the decomposition of samples was obtained using Kissinger equation. The resultant data show that for EP containing IFR, compared with EP, IFR decreased mass loss, thermal stability and R max, increased the char yield. The activation energy for the decomposition of EP is 230.4 kJ mol−1 while it becomes 193.8 kJ mol−1 for EP containing IFR, decreased by 36.6 kJ mol−1, which shows that IFR can catalyze decomposition and carbonization of EP.

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