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The presence of the vanA gene was determined in enterococci from healthy poultry, originating from the Hungarian resistance monitoring system between 2001 and 2004. Enterococci (n = 562) were collected from intestinal samples of slaughtered broiler chickens. The presence of van genes was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) strains carried only the vanA gene. Genus- and species-level identification of the vanA gene carrier strains was carried out by PCR using specific primers. In 2001, 25 out of the 289 isolated strains (8.6%) were vanA carriers (1 Enterococcus mundtii , 13 E. durans and 11 E. faecium ). In 2002 (n = 87), 20 (23%) strains were vanA positive (11 E. durans and 9 E. faecium ). In 2003 and 2004, none of the strains (n = 95 and 91, respectively) were positive for the most common van genes. In 2003, there was only one strain for which higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of vancomycin (4 mg/L) and teicoplanin (8 mg/L) were found. In 2004 there were three strains for which the MIC of vancomycin was 8 mg/L, and 2 strains and 1 strain with teicoplanin MICs of 4 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively. The potential similarity of these strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The VRE strains were not closely related to one another. The annual data of vancomycin resistance indicate an association between the recovery of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and the use of avoparcin in animal feeds. This study indicates that with the reduced use of antibiotics in food animals, it is possible to decrease the rate of resistant bacteria. Although the use of avoparcin had been banned in 1998, the VRE strains disappeared only five years later.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Marzieh Aligholi, Mohammad Emaneini, Morovat Taherikalani, Shadi Shahsavan, Fereshteh Jabalameli, Parisa Asadollahi, Babak Khoramian, and Mohammad Eslampour

.: Detection of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) isolated from urinary tract infections (UTI) in Tehran, Iran. Daru 14 , 141–145 (2006). Kazemi B. Detection of Vancomycin Resistant

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Ramotar, K., Woods, W., Larocque, L., Toye, B.: Comparison of phenotypic methods to identify enterococci intrinsically resistant to vancomycin ( vanC VRE). Diagn. Microbiol. Inf. Dis. 36 , 119 (2000). Toye B

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genetic relatedness of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated from healthy slaughtered chickens in Hungary from 2001 to 2004. Acta Vet Hung 56 , 13–25 (2008). Rozgonyi F

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. The lowest resistance was observed against nitrofurantoin, with 2.1% of the isolates being resistant ( Table 2 ). Six vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) strains were found. Two strains were found to be resistant to 7 antibiotics, one of them was

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Julia Münch, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Martin Müller, Viktor Kellert, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Rebecca Hinz, Norbert Georg Schwarz, and Hagen Frickmann

The effectiveness of a disinfectant-based decolonization strategy for multidrug-resistant bacteria like extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Gram-negative bacteria with or without additional fluoroquinolon and carbapenem resistance as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was assessed.

Between 2011 and 2015, 25 patients from Libya, Syria, and the Ukraine with war traumata were treated at the Bundeswehr hospital Hamburg. The patients were heavily colonized and infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria, altogether comprising 371 distinct combinations of pathogens and isolation sites. Local disinfection was assessed for effectiveness regarding successful decolonization of multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Altogether, 170 cases of successful decolonization were observed, comprising 95 (55.8%) such events at sampling sites that were accessible to disinfecting procedures. The remaining 75 (44.2%) decolonization events had to be considered as spontaneous. In contrast, 95 out of 172 (55.2%) colonized isolation sites that were accessible to disinfection procedures were successfully decolonized. Patient compliance with the enforced hygiene procedures was associated with decolonization success. Systemic antibiotic therapy did not relevantly affect isolation time.

Disinfecting washing moderately supports local decolonization of multidrug-resistant pathogens in comparison with spontaneous decolonization rates if the patients’ compliance with the applied hygiene procedures is ensured.

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, Werner G: Vancomycin-resistente Enterokokken (VRE). Aktuelle Daten und Trends zur Resistenzentwicklung. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 55, 1387–1400 (2012) Werner G

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-positive bacterial infections. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) was first identified in 1988 ( Leclercq at al., 1988 ), 30 years after the introduction of glycopeptides. The genes responsible for vancomycin resistance in enterococci include the genes van A

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Milica Jovanović, Branko Milošević, Tanja Tošić, Goran Stevanović, Vesna Mioljević, Nikola Inđić, Branko Velebit, and Marcus Zervos

In this study the distribution of species and antimicrobial resistance among vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) recovered from clinical specimens obtained from five hospitals in Belgrade was analyzed. Strains were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to investigate the presence of vanA and vanB genes and pathogenicity factor genes. Identification of 194 VRE isolates revealed 154 Enterococcus faecium, 21 Enterococcus faecalis, 10 Enterococcus raffinosus and 9 Enterococcus gallinarum. This study revealed existence of 8 major clones of VRE. PCR determined vanA gene to be present in all of the VRE studied. Esp and hyl genes were present in 29.22% and 27.92% of E. faecium, respectively, and in 76.19% and 0 of E. faecalis, respectively. Esp and hyl genes were not found more frequently in members of predominant clones of E. faecium than in single isolates; nor was their presence connected to invasiveness.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Milica Jovanović, Branko Milošević, Olga Dulović, Mijomir Pelemiš, Goran Stevanović, Tanja Tošić, Branka Stošović, and M.J. Zervos

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular relatedness of clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) collected from patients of the Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade. Among 40 isolates available for the investigation, 36 were identified as Enterococcus faecium, whereas 2 were Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus raffinosus, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed 21 strain types, comprising 7 clusters which contained at least two isolates and 14 unique PFGE patterns. Although we searched for pathogenicity factor genes (gelE, cylB, asa1, efaAfs, esp, cpd, cob) in representatives of all macro-restriction patterns, they have been confirmed in only one clone of E. faecalis. Genes esp and hyl, commonly found in E. faecium, were yilded in 10 macro-restriction patterns of this species, and their presence could not be ascribed to clonally related strains (p = 0.05). All VRE isolates were multiresistant and positive for vanA gene. Twenty strains of VRE and 6 clusters obtained from Intensive care unit (ICU) are proof of intensive transmission of these microorganisms at this department. The results of this study suggest wide genotypic variability among the clinical VRE isolates, but also intrahospital dissemination of some of them.

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