Authors:T. Sakuma, Xianglian, S. Siagian, K. Basar, H. Takahashi, N. Igawa, and O. Kamishima
Neutron diffraction measurements have been performed on powder VSe at 294 K. The diffuse scattering theory including correlation
effects among thermal displacements of atoms is applied to background function in the Rietveld analysis. The oscillatory scheme
of the diffuse scattering intensity from hexagonal VSe is explained by the correlation effects among far-neighboring Se–Se
atoms. The values of the correlation effects depend on the inter-atomic distance and not on the crystal structure. The relation
between correlation effects and force constants is discussed.
Authors:Marzieh Aligholi, Mohammad Emaneini, Morovat Taherikalani, Shadi Shahsavan, Fereshteh Jabalameli, Parisa Asadollahi, Babak Khoramian, and Mohammad Eslampour
The synergy between gentamicin and vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin and linezolid was studied by time-kill method. Two clinical vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and two vancomycin susceptible enterococci (VSE) isolates were used. Different concentrations of antibiotics were combined. Two VSE strains and the control strain exhibited synergism with the combination of gentamicin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin and linezolid. Two VRE strains exhibited synergism with the combination of gentamicin and ampicillin. Synergy between gentamicin and vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid was not observed against these isolates. The VRE isolates were positive for vanA, aac (6′)-Ie aph (2“) and aph (3′)-IIIa genes and their vancomycin, teicoplanin and gentamicin MICs were 512 μg/ml, 512 μg/ml and >4000 μg/ml, respectively. In order to treat serious enterococcal infections, further clinical evaluation is needed to examine the in vitro combined effects of gentamicin and vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid.
Authors:Jan Čadil, Karel Mirošník, and Ludmila Petkovová
The attention and support that R&D receives from economists and politicians reflects its importance as a key element of competitiveness and growth in advanced economies. But the real effect of policy upon public support depends on the technological level and structure of the economy and on the ability of beneficiaries to use the support effectively. We should also ask whether the current measurement of R&D outcomes and their subsequent assessment actually reflects real-world situations. The paper presents results of a research focused on the effectiveness of R&D subsidies on the performance of private enterprises in the Czech Republic. We deliberately focus on financial data and compare beneficiaries with unsuccessful applicants using techniques of counterfactual analysis. Although supported actors exhibit higher values of certain variables like assets, personnel expenditures or value added, these cannot be claimed to be the result of R&D support. These findings suggest the very limited effectiveness of R&D support to private actors in the Czech Republic, at least in the short run.
Authors:Hana Zídková, Jana Tepperová, and Karel Helman
Perception of tax evasion by individual citizens is of considerable interest to politicians, since people’s perceived attitudes affect the approach to tax compliance throughout the society. It is thus worth identifying personal characteristics that are related to a higher degree of tolerance and justification for tax evasion. Based on the 2008 European Values Survey data and using descriptive statistics, the paper discusses the relationship between the respondents’ characteristics and their tendency to justify tax evasion. The study finds a strong relationship between this tendency and age, educational attainment and economic activity, the two other variables (parenthood and income) indicating only a weak relationship. Moreover, the current issue allows us to convincingly argue against the regression analysis stereotypes which often yield biased and confl icting results. The paper confirms our constructive criticism, thus opening up space for an extended discussion of a more balanced use of both descriptive statistics and regression models.
This paper deals with the possible existence of political budget cycles (PBCs) within the European Union (EU). I use panel data for 28 EU countries from 1995 to 2016 and provide estimates based on dynamic panel regressions. I employ a system-GMM estimator complemented by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to limit the number of instruments. The specifications include structural budget balances related to the potential GDP, thereby limiting the initial endogeneity. These measures capture the true motivation behind fiscal policies. The results suggest that the EU member states exhibit PBCs: (i) the intervention occurs in the year before elections and (ii) the structural budget balance to the potential GDP ratio is lower by −0.41 percentage points a year before elections. In addition, I have investigated the EU fragmentation in terms of the PBCs and selected 8 countries’ characteristics correlating to the existence of these cycles. These include lower GDP per capita, post-communist background, low tax burden, high perceived corruption, low levels of media freedom and internet usage, lower number of directly voted-in legislative officials, and a low parliamentary voter turnout.
There has been an increase in outward foreign direct investment (FDI) and in the number of locally-owned or controlled multinationals in the Czech Republic and Hungary. However, data problems hinder to determine accurately the underlying trends and the main factors behind the changes. Data on outward FDI contain investment realised by all locally operational firms, regardless of their ownership. We rely on newly available balance of payments manual 6 (BPM) data and on company case studies. We show that outward investment by Czech firms must be much higher than what balance of payments data show. Hungary's case is the opposite. The leading Czech and Hungarian foreign investor firms can be categorised as “virtual indirect” foreign investors: they are in majority foreign ownership, but under domestic control. The reason for this special type of firms dominating in outward foreign direct investments can be found in the privatisation technique applied in these countries during the transition process.