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The campaigns of Augustus in the Carpathian basin, connected with the occupation of Pannonia (Illyricum) have been discussed in many papers. The general was Tiberius, but also a Vinicius and Cornelius Lentulus are mentioned in the sources. Many different and controversial solutions have been proposed for the chronology, the extension and the process of the wars. After having summarized the different proposals again this paper returns to one of them which has on the basis of the newer observations the highest probability.

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Abstract  

Al2CoO4–PbCrO4 and Al2CoO4–Pb2CrO5 crystalline powders in different proportions were obtained by the polymeric precursor method. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) techniques were used to accurately characterize the distinct thermal events occurring during synthesis. The TG and DSC results revealed a series of overlapping decomposition reactions due to different exothermal events, which were identified as H2O and NOx elimination and polymer pyrolysis. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the xAl2CoO4–(1 − x)PbCrO4 and xAl2CoO4–(1 − x)Pb2CrO5 mixed compounds, with x = 1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 and 0, were obtained in the crystalline form with their respective phases, and proved consistent with the nominal compositions. The synthesis of these two systems yielded nine different colors and shades.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Anne G. D. Santos
,
Vinícius P. S. Caldeira
,
Mirna F. Farias
,
Antonio S. Araújo
,
Luiz D. Souza
, and
Allan K. Barros

Abstract

In this study, the physico-chemistry characterization and kinetic study of the thermal decomposition of sunflower oil and its biodiesel were carried out. Sunflower biodiesel was synthesized by the methanol route and basic homogeneous catalysis. The physicochemical characterization of the sunflower oil and biodiesel were performed according to standards set out in the ANP resolution, and both are in accordance to the specifications. The chromatographic analysis was obtained by GC-FID. The yield of conversion of 97.4 wt% of sunflower oil in methyl esters confirms the efficiency of the conversion of the fatty acids into esters. The thermal analysis was performed on a thermobalance, using heating rates of 5, 10, and 20 °C min−1. In these three rates, we observed a single well-defined step of mass loss that describes the volatilization and decomposition of the sunflower oil and the biodiesel. The kinetic study was performed using equations of approximation and integration methods such as Coats–Redfern, Van Krevelen, and Horowitz–Metzger. The kinetic parameters reaction order (n) and apparent activation energy (E a), obtained by applying these method were correlated.

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Acta Chromatographica
Authors:
Leonel Vinicius Constantino
,
Douglas Mariani Zeffa
,
Alessandra Koltun
,
Mariana Ragassi Urbano
,
Alisson Wilson Santos Sanzovo
, and
Suzana Lucy Nixdorf

An optimal condition for extraction of soluble sugars from green coffee using water and a validated chromatographic method for its separation and quantification were proposed in this research. An orbital incubator shaker (OIS) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were the 2 techniques used to extract soluble sugars. In such experiments, the variables: sample amount (300, 400, and 500 mg), time (30, 60, and 90 min), and temperature (30, 45, and 60 °C) were tested. The separation of sugars was performed in a chromatographic system (high-performance liquid chromatography refractive index detector [HPLC-RID]), which presented the selectivity for the analytes, a limit of detection of 0.020 g/L, a limit of quantification of 0.0625 g/L, and recovery rates greater than 95%. The repeatability and inter-day precision had low dispersion, RSD < 2.0% and < 3.0%, respectively. Sucrose content ranged from 0.65 to 2.39 g/L using an OIS and from 1.19 to 2.72 g/L by MAE, while glucose and fructose concentration varied from 0.08 to 0.12 g/L using both methods. The OIS technique is preferably indicated for extraction of soluble sugars at the following conditions: 500 mg of grounded green coffee, 90 min, and 60 °C. The proposed method for soluble sugar extraction and quantification may be applied in research laboratories and food industries since it is a low-cost and environment-friendly technique.

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Gene Genie

A review of A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History by Nicholas Wade. New York, NY: Penguin (2014), 288 pages. ISBN: 9780698163799

Journal of Evolutionary Psychology
Authors:
Robert King
and
Raegan Murphy

Migliano , A. B., Vinicius , L. and Lahr , M. M. (2007): Life history trade-offs explain the evolution of human pygmies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 20216

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Tiefebene erreichende Feldzug des M. Vinicius, durch den der dakische Einbruch im Jahre 10 v. Chr. vergolten wurde, gewesen sein.) Aber das steht mit der Besitznahme dieses Gebietes durch die Römer in keinem Zusammenhang. 8 XI. Bezirk, Gellért-Bad In der

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