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This study tries to give an overview of the varied connections between word and image in the calendars and other popular works (penny books, manuscript song collections) of the late Renaissance and Baroque. The author investigates the associations and influences from different fields of culture, considers ancient topoi and archetypes which underwent a great many transformations over space and time. In the first part of this paper are examined some non-traditional figures in the calendar for 1578 (Kolozsvár-Cluj, Heltai’s office) like mermaids/sirens in the role of Aquarius and Virgo, and the appearence of these figures on the painted furniture and ceiling panels of 18th -century Calvinist churches in Hungary.

The second part of this article deals with some typical title pages of calendars, edited in different printing houses of Upper Hungary (by Lorentz Brewer in Lőcse/Levoča, the serie Calendarium Tyrnaviense, Nagyszombat/Trnava) from the second half of the 17th century, and with the calendars of David Frölich, published in Breslau (Wrocław, PL) between 1623 and 1646.

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In his well-known description of legis actio sacramento in rem , Gaius remarks that the rod was used in the procedure instead of the spear as the sign of lawful property since what the Romans considered truly their own was the goods taken from the enemy: “ Festuca autem utebantur quasi hastae loco, signo quodam iusti dominii; quod maxime sua esse credebant quae ex hostibus cepissent .” In harmony with Gaius’s view Verrius Festus states that the spear is the symbol, incarnation of supreme power: “ Hasta summa armorum et imperii est .” Setting out from these two testimonia , in the present study we intend to examine the content of the hasta and the festuca as symbols of power to support the interpretation of the ritual of legis actio sacramento in rem as duellum sacrum . First, we shall give a brief account of the occurrences of the spear as the symbol of imperium , of subhastatio related thereto and the function of the supreme commander’s spear; also, we shall touch on the stick of augures and certain Greek prefigurations and parallels of the symbolic nature of the spear and the rod. (I.) After that, we shall make some statements concerning the spear of the god Mars and the Mars cult, and the relation of Quirinus and Quirites to the symbolism of the spear. (II.) The fasces carried by lictores proceeding in front of the magistratus , the flamen Dialis and the virgo Vestalis are also insignia of power and, as we try to highlight this point, incamate the highly sacralised, numinous nature of power. (III.) Finally, from the ceremony of declaring war and from the special character and use of the spear in the ceremony we intend to show certain parallels between ius fetiale and legis actio sacramento in rem . (IV.)

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Abstract

In the 14th century iconography of St Ladislaus there is an ensemble in which the sainted king is sitting on a throne. The earliest known relic of this maiestas type is bishop of Várad András Bátori's pontifical seal (1329–45). The high priest on confidential terms with King Charles Robert is credited with the renovation and enlargement of Várad (Oradea) cathedral including the erection of new altarpieces and the transformation of old ones. The first impression of his pontifical seal is dated 1338, which marks a turning point in the traditional composition of pontifical seals. They customarily featured the stationary figure of the archbishop or bishop, and later (from the beginning of the 14th century) the patron saint of the diocese with high priests at prayer around him or her. In the middle of the Bátori seal neither the bishop, nor the patron saint of the cathedral (Beata Maria Virgo), but King Saint Ladislaus can be seen (it was the king who had transferred the seat of the Bihar bishopric to Várad and founded the cathedral). Previously, St Ladislaus only featured on the seal of the Várad chapter from 1291. After its release the sedentary type spread quickly. Its extant specimens include a – by now perished – mural in the St Michael church of Kolozsvár, and the starting scenes in three fresco cycles on the legend of St Ladislaus in Transylvania (Gelence [Ghelinta], Homoródszentmárton [Martiniş], Homoródkarácsonyfalva [Craciunel]). The best known examples are the silver coins issued by King Louis I the Great from 1364. Highly distinguished among the relics is a mould for casting pigrim's badges fished out of the Seine in 1894. The casting mould gives us a clue as to what kind of a St Ladislaus altarpiece was venerated in Várad. This conclusion is justified by the fact that a pilgrim's badge always portrayed a votive icon or statue at the place of pilgrimage, with tiny copies of other saints specifically worshipped at the shrine. This applies to this casting mould as well, hence it features the schematic representation of the picture erected on St Ladislaus's renewed altar at the time of András Bátori – and this representation is identical with the picture of the bishop's seal. Concerning the Bátori seal, it was Jolán Balogh (1900–1986) who first hypothesized a Neapolitan link. On the basis of the quite obvious compositional correspondences, one can conclude that this link must have been Simone Martini's altarpiece of Saint Louis of Toulouse (1317) in Naples, which had a specially high ideological importance for the Anjous.

The enthroned St Ladislaus picture was undoubtedly a cultic image for the Hungarian Angevin kings, with ideological-typological roots in the Neapolitan court. The Hungarian branch of the family also adhered to the cults and iconographic traditions of Naples but they tried to adapt them to the circumstances of their new country with a view to superseding and modernizing the earlier models.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Veronika Tóth, Beáta Somlai, Judit Hársing, Zsófia Hatvani, and Sarolta Kárpáti

. 2005 23 8065 8075 Siegel, R., DeSantis, C., Virgo, K., et al.: Cancer treatment and survivorship

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Balogh , Augutinus Florianus 1872: Beatissima Virgo Mater die, qua Regia et patrona Hungariarum … Agriae. Barna , Gábor 1993: A kunszentmártoniak radnai búcsújárása [Die Wallfahrt der Bevölkerung von

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the surrondings of Madrid (Central Spain) . Urban Ecosyst. 21 : 1199 – 1212 . Barea-Azcón , J.M. , E. Virgós , E. Ballesteros-Duperón , M. Moleón and M. Chirosa . 2007

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. Virgo H.G. Huckenholz 1977 Titanium-containing silicate garnets. I. The distribution of Al, Fe3+, and Ti4+ between octahedral and tetrahedral sites

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Szelenoészter-származékok daganatellenes és rezisztenciamódosító hatásának vizsgálata epidemiológiailag releváns daganatsejt-modellrendszerek felhasználásával

Evaluation of selenoester derivatives as antitumor and multidrug resistance-reversing agents on epidemiologically relevant cancer cell lines

Hematológia–Transzfuziológia
Author: Márió Gajdács

–90. 4 Siegel R, De Santis C, Virgo K, et al. Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics. CA Cancer J. Clin. 2013; 63: 11–30. 5 Primic-Zakelj M, Zadnik

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, Zouwail S, et al. Calculated globulin (CG) as a screening test for antibody deficiency. Clin Exp Immunol. 2014; 177: 671–678. 6 Bright PD, Rooney N, Virgo PF, et al. Laboratory clues

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: András Jánosi, Tamás Ferenci, Zsolt Kőszegi, Gergely György Nagy, Zoltán Jambrik, Zoltán Ruzsa, Géza Lupkovics, Zoltán Csanádi, Dávid Becker, Béla Merkely, and Péter Andréka

, Spatz ES, Dreyer RP, et al. Presentation, clinical profile, and prognosis of young patients with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA): results from the VIRGO Study. J Am

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