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In spite of their cryobiological efficacy, minimum-volume vitrification methods suffer from the risk of microbiological contamination and are technically and/or manually demanding. In this study, the effects of a traditional, slightly modified vitrification method and vitrification using supercooled liquid nitrogen (VitMaster) applied for rabbit morula-stage embryos were compared. Embryos were equilibrated in a solution containing 1,2-propanediol (2.72 M) and glycerol (1.36 M) for 7 min and vitrified in 0.25-ml insemination straws after 1-min exposure to a vitrification solution containing additionally 1.0 M sucrose. Cooling was performed in ‘normal’ or supercooled liquid nitrogen. Regardless of the cooling method applied, high in vitro survival and development rates of vitrified embryos were obtained. All embryos were intact after warming, and 61 out of 65 (93.8%) and 23 out of 24 (95.8%) embryos developed to the blastocyst stage after 48-h in vitro culture of embryos vitrified in ‘normal’ or supercooled liquid nitrogen, respectively. The results suggest higher developmental ability of embryos vitrified in supercooled liquid nitrogen (91.7% vs . 83.1% of embryos vitrified traditionally developed to more advanced, expanding and/or hatching blastocyst stages). In vivo survival rate, tested for the traditional vitrification system only, revealed that 36.8% of embryos developed to term. The results show promise for establishing a fully successful method for rabbit embryo vitrification.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Philip Klambauer
,
Zsuzsa Keresztes
,
Katalin Kanyó
,
Erika Varga
,
Rita Kriston
,
Nóra Vass
,
András Jávor
,
János Konc
,
László Solti
, and
Sándor Cseh

By decreasing the volume of the cryoprotective solution it is possible to increase dramatically the freezing speed and — at the same time — reduce the toxicity and osmotic side effects of cryoprotectants (CPA). The objective of our study was to vitrify Day-3 cleavage stage mouse embryos (n = 229) with the cryoloop technology using a new composition of vitrification media. Embryos were exposed to a 2-step loading of CPA, ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG), before being placed on the surface of a thin filmy layer formed from the vitrification solution in a small nylon loop, then they were rapidly submerged into liquid nitrogen. After warming, the CPA was diluted out from the embryos by a 3-step procedure. Survival of embryos was based on morphological appearance after thawing and continued development to expanded blastocysts upon subsequent 48-hour culture. Embryos of the two control groups were either treated likewise except that they were not vitrified, or cultured in vitro without any treatment. Our data show that a high percentage of embryos survived (92.7%) vitrification in the mixture of EG and PG combined with cryoloop carrier and developed normally (89.1%) in vitro after thawing. To our knowledge this is the first report of the successful vitrification of cleavage stage mouse embryos using VitroLoop vitrification procedure.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Eszter Patakiné Várkonyi
,
Gabriella Horváth
,
Nikoletta Sztán
,
Éva VÁradi
, and
Judit Barna

Although cryopreservation of avian semen is only applicable for singlegene traits, cryopreservation of avian blastodermal cells could facilitate preservation of the entire genome of endangered or rare-breed poultry. Slow freezing methods result in acceptable survival rates; however, there are apparently no reports regarding the use of vitrification. The aim of the study was to establish methods for chicken embryonic cell vitrification, including development of a container which supported cryopreservation of large numbers of cells (to increase the probability of chimera production). Based on a preliminary study, vitrification seemed to be practical for avian blastodermal cell preservation. Pieces of mosquito net as carrier increased live cell rates compared to pellet form in media containing two macromolecules. Furthermore, we concluded that fetal calf serum in the vitrification medium could be replaced by polyvinylpyrrolidone, a chemically defined substance free of unwanted growth factors and potential pathogens.

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Freezing technologies are very important to preserve gametes and embryos of animals with a good pedigree or those having high genetic value. The aim of this work was to compare immature and in vitromatured porcine oocytes regarding their morphology and ability to be fertilised after vitrification by the open pulled straw (OPS) method. In four experiments 830 oocytes were examined. To investigate the effect of cumulus cells on oocyte survival after OPS vitrification, both denuded and cumulus-enclosed oocytes were vitrified at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, then after vitrification they were matured in vitro. Besides, in vitromatured oocytes surrounded with a cumulus and those without a cumulus were also vitrified. The survival of oocytes was evaluated by their morphology. After in vitrofertilisation the rates of oocytes penetrated by spermatozoa were compared. Our results suggest that the vitrification/warming procedure is the most effective in cumulus-enclosed oocytes (22.35 ± 1.75%). There was no difference between the order of maturation and vitrification in cumulus-enclosed oocytes, which suggests the importance of cumulus cells in protecting the viability of oocytes during cryopreservation.

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Abstract  

The processes of vitrification and devitrification that occur in an epoxy resin when it cures non-isothermally with a hardener are studied in terms of their frequency dependence and as a function of the heating rate. A novel modulated DSC technique, TOPEM, has been used which permits the evaluation of the frequency dependence for a single sample in a scan at constant underlying heating rate, thus avoiding errors arising from the composition of the sample. The effects of both frequency and heating rate on vitrification and devitrification are investigated. Some advantages of this technique are observed and discussed.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Erika Varga
,
Erzsébet Gajdócsi
,
Brigitta Petz Makkosné
,
Ildikó Salamon
, and
Ágnes Bali Papp

The breeding of Mangalica, a native pig breed in Hungary, had been started in 1833, but this pig breed almost became extinct in Hungary in the past decades. In 1991, the number of sows was only 200. Although in these days the existing Mangalica population consists of more than 6000 animals representing different colour variations, the preservation of this traditional pig breed is still very important. Vitrification is a potential tool for the preservation of gametes and embryos of these animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitrification on the developmental competence of Mangalica (M) and Large White (LW) oocytes following fertilisation. The oocytes were vitrified by the Open Pulled Straw (OPS) method using different concentrations of ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulphoxide as cryoprotectants. After rehydration the oocytes underwent in vitro fertilisation; the resultant zygotes were then cultured in vitro for four days to assess embryonic development. In the first experiment, in vitro maturation of M and LW oocytes was compared. No significant difference was observed in the nuclear maturation rate of LW and M oocytes. In the second experiment, the sensitivity of oocytes to vitrification was examined by evaluating oocyte morphology after thawing. A higher percentage of LW oocytes showed normal morphology compared to M oocytes, indicating that Mangalica oocytes are more sensitive to cryoprotectants than Large White oocytes. After warming and in vitro fertilisation, more than 50% of the oocytes started embryonic development and by the end of the incubation period morula stage embryos had developed in both groups. The results show that the OPS vitrification technique is well suited to preserve Mangalica oocytes and from these oocytes morula embryos can be produced.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
C. A. Gracia-Fernández
,
P. Davies
,
S. Gómez-Barreiro
,
Beceiro J. López
,
J. Tarrío-Saavedra
, and
R. Artiaga

. However, vitrification is associated to the Cp rev progress and, thus, vitrification studies should be based on that magnitude [ 15 ]. The experimental determination of the vitrification time, t vit , by conventional DSC is very time

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oxidative stress and structural lesions during the cold preservation/reperfusion injury ( Ferencz et al., 2009 ). These results raise the possibility that PACAP might be protective in embryo vitrification. The aim of our present study was to assess the

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and vitrification. Gelation is the incipient formation of a cross-linked network, and it is a most distinguishing characteristic of a thermo-set. Gelation does not usually inhibit the process of curing, and it cannot be detected by techniques which are

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
B. Baranyai
,
Sz. Bodó
,
A. Dinnyés
, and
Elen Gócza

Solid surface vitrification (SSV) was compared with in-straw vitrification for cryopreservation of biopsied mouse embryos. Eight-cell stage embryos were zona drilled and one blastomere was removed. Developed morulae or blastocysts were vitrified in microdrop (35% EG + 5% PVP + 0.4 M trehalose) or in straw (7.0 M EG + 0.5 M sucrose). Following recovery, embryos were cultivated in vi tro or transferred into recipients. Cryopreservation had an effect not only on the survival of biopsied embryos but also on their subsequent development in vitro. Cryosurvival of biopsied morulae vitrified in straw was significantly inferior to SSV. The post-warm development of biopsied and non-biopsied morulae was delayed on Day 3.5 and 4.5 in both vitrification groups. A delay in development was observed on Day 5.5 among vitrified non-biopsied blastocysts. The percentage of pups born from biopsied morulae or blastocysts following cryopreservation did not differ from that of the control. No significant differences could be detected between methods within and between embryonic stages in terms of birth rate. The birth rate of biopsied embryos vitrified in straw was significantly lower compared to the non-biopsied embryos. The novel cryopreservation protocol of SSV proved to be effective for cryopreservation of morula- and blastocyst-stage biopsied embryos.

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