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The expression levels of two marker proteins (phosphinotrichin acetyltransferase, PAT and wheat germ agglutinin, WGA) in the transgenic wheat lines and their resistance to digestion in small intestine of rats were studied in comparison with their non-transgenic counterpart obtained from green house and field experiments of two subsequent years. The marker proteins were quantified by ELISA. It was found that the expression of PAT and WGA markedly increased when the wheat was grown in the field compared to that in the greenhouse. There were no significant differences between the WGA contents of the parent and transgenic wheat lines, but a broad range of expression of PAT and WGA was observed in the transgenic lines. PAT did not survive in the small intestine of the rats, while WGA was resistant to digestion in different ratios and was bound to the intestinal epithelium.

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A panel of orally administered lectins (100 mg/kg b.w.) of different binding specificities was tested for suppression of voluntary food consumption in prefasted rats. PHA isolectins (Phaseolus vulgaris) and RPA-I (Robinia pseudoacacia) were found to exert a marked and significant effect, but two other gut-binding lectins, i.e. SBA (Glycine max) and WGA (Triticum vulgare) and several non-binding lectins were ineffective. In cannulated rats PHA infused into the duodenum induced food suppression, i.e. binding of the lectin to the mouth or stomach was unnecessary. Suppression of food consumption lasted through the whole nocturnal feeding period, control (BSA) and experimental (PHA) curves of cumulative food consumption showed a V-like divergence. Suppression by PHA or RPA-I showed very similar time courses, but a long-lasting inhibition of gastric emptying was only observed in the RPA-treated animals. Intraperitoneally administered lectins suppressed food consumption much more effectively than the oral ones, whereas Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) had little or no effect. It is concluded that lectins can be used as effective tools for the modulation of food consumption and gastric emptying in experimental animals.

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Short-term effects of orally administered plant lectins, with special reference to the Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA), were studied in growing rats.  The orally administered PHA elicited a dose-dependent accumulation of liquor with elevated pH in the proximal small intestine. Although the concentration of a-amylase activity did not change, total a-amylase activity slightly, but significantly increased in the gut. When a panel of plant lectins with different carbohydrate binding specificities was tested at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, most of them stimulated the secretion of liquor, but the total a-amylase activity was increased only by PHA, ConA or WGA.

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Protein sets, enzyme activities and immune reactivity against wheat germ agglutinin in the albumin-globulin fractions of parent and herbicide resistant transgenic wheat lines were studied.Our results showed significantly increased amylase activities and increased immune reactivity against wheat germ agglutinin in the herbicide resistant transgenic wheat lines, investigated. The amylases and lectins belong to the plant food allergens; this explains why both scientists and consumers are interested in assessing the allergenic potential of plant proteins and the safety assessment of novel foods and GM foods in highlight of food safety. This paper is an important contribution to our database and the understanding of what is going on with genetic engineering of crop plants.

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Resolution and Discovery
Authors: Nada Žnidaršič, Polona Mrak, Eva Rajh, Kristina Žagar Soderžnik, Miran Čeh and Jasna Štrus

agglutinin (WGA) lectin-gold conjugate at the level of transmission electron microscopy; (d) Cuticular calcified regions determination in resin sections by histochemistry and in “intact” cuticle surfaces by scanning electron microscopy with energy

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Immunological assays demonstrate that buckwheat flour proteins present no toxic prolamins to coeliac patients. Our study proves that buckwheat has no homologous protein structure with wheat. Electrophoretograms showed that some protein bands of buckwheat proteins resemble papillionaceous (bean) proteins. The allergenic character of buckwheat was measured by competitive indirect ELISA using anti-wheat germ lectin (Wga) immune serum. Properly hulled buckwheat flour did not react with Wga immune serum, and is therefore suitable to be used in the diet of coeliac patients.

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The lateralis medialis-suprageniculate nucleus (LM-Sg) of the feline posterior thalamus is a relay nucleus with a clear visuomotor function. In this study, we examined the distribution of axon terminals of the nigral afferent to the LM-Sg following injection of an anterograde tracer, biocytin, into the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the distribution of the thalamostriatal projection neurons in the LM-Sg following the injection of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) as a retrograde tracer into the caudate nucleus. The biocytin-labeled terminal-like puncta were located in the ventromedial portion of this nucleus in such a way that most of the labeled elements took the form of swellings having boutons in places, while a minority appeared in clusters of 3–5 large terminal-like puncta. The retrograde WGA-HRP-labeled neurons were also found in the ventromedial part of the LM-Sg, and the distributions of labeled nigrothalamic axon terminals and labeled thalamostriatal projection neurons therefore overlapped in this region. The present results indicate that the nigral afferent may make synaptic contacts directly with the thalamostriatal projection neurons within the LM-Sg.

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. Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina. Shanmuga , P. M. , Sridharan , S. and Kuttalam , S. ( 2016 ): Fipronil 80WG-A promising phenyl pyrazole insecticide to manage thrips damage in grapes . Annals of Plant Protection Sci. 24

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Design, Bucureşti 2008. Vukoszávlyev 2011: Zorán Vukoszávlyev: Anyag és csend. Építés-Építészettudomány Vol. 39 (2011) No. 3–4. 243–255. WGA 2011: Andor Wesselényi-Garay: A nagyság ígérete. Kodály

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. Seism. Res. Lett. 1995 66 8 21 Koçiu S 1982: Seismic Hazard Maps of Albania, Final Report of WGA, UNDP

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