Mössbauer effect was used for the characterization of the radioactive waste treatment products, e.g. precipitate formed during the treatment of LLAW (Low Level Active Waste) using iron compounds and their conditioned matrix obtained by cementation.
Different iron hydroxide precipitation processes simulating radioactive waste, treatment have been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and at 80 K. Magnetic oxides (hematite or magnetite) partially affected by superparamagnetic relaxation have been observed. The crystallization degree and the particle size depend on the concentration and the addition order of chemicals. Much smaller particles were precipitated with Ca(OH)2 than with NaOH as neutralization reagent.
The uptake of137Cs and90Sr/90Y onto Syrian bentonite has been studed, using batch and column tracer techniques in order to investigate its utilization for aqueous radioactive effluent treatment. Parameters influencing the percent uptake considered and studied in this work are: nuclide concentration, pH of the aqueous phase, heat treatment and particle size. Leaching experiments using natural sea and ground waters were carried out on bentonite/cement composites. They demonstrated the effectiveness of calcination and cement containment.
The use of titanium oxide as a photocatalyst in the degradation of organic complexing agents by ultraviolet radiation is being studied as a possible method for the removal of radioactive ions from solutions of these complexing agents that have been used to decontaminate nuclear facilities. Inorganic absorbers are being increasingly used for the decontamination of radioactive aqueous wastes. Information is presented on two areas of study to incorporate inorganic absorbers into a matrix material in order to provide a granular product suitable for use in a packed bed. Finally, information is reported on the combination of inorganic absorbers with magnetite in order to allow separation of the loaded absorber from the treated liquid waste by use of a magnet.
Authors:S. Marsh, G. Jarvinen, R. Bartsch, J. Nam, and M. Barr
Additional1 bifunctional anion-exchange resins have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to take up Pu(IV) from
nitric acid solutions. Bifunctionality is achieved by adding a second anion-exchange site to the pyridine nitrogen (also an
anion-exchange site) of the base poly(4-vinylpyridine) resin. Previous work focused on the effect of varying the chemical
properties of the added site along with the length of an alkylene ‘spacer’ between the two sites. Here we examine four new
3- and 4-picolyl derivatives which maintain more rigidly defined geometries between the two nitrogen cationic sites. These
materials, which have the two anion-exchange sites separated by three and four carbons, respectively, exhibit lower overall
Pu(IV) distribution coefficients than the corresponding N-alkylenepyridium derivatieves with more flexible spacers. Methylation
of the second pyridium site results in a ca. 20% increase in the Pu(IV) distribution coefficients.
The choice of an appropriate and safe disposal alternative should be based on the wide range of physicochemical examination thermal analysis in conjunction with other data enables identification of wastes, allows determination of weight losses at any stage of thermal decomposition and characterization of the combustible properties of wastes.
Managing waste becomes a much more complex task, when logistic changes have to be implemented to combine selective waste collection, needed to increase the rate of recycling, with traditional residual waste collection. This complexity is complicated further by the ever increasing choices of methods and technologies available for the treatment of collected waste.Using available resources efficiently, minimizing environmental effects and operation costs should be the guiding ideas behind optimization of a waste management system, even though often these ideas are in conflict with each other. In this phase of research those factors which have a major influence on system costs are analyzed.
Synthetic zeolites X & Y have been examined for their abilities to take in Co, Ni and Zn radioisotopes. Distribution coefficients (Kd) have been determined, with and without competing cations, and at various pH values. Elution studies on zeolites containing Co, Ni and Zn radioisotopes considered the effect of acid and alkaline conditions, calcination and cement encapsulation. Leach rates arising from these experiments have been calculated. The general conclusions can be drawn are that zeolites X & Y are suitable for decontamination of aqueous wastes containing Co, Ni and Zn. Cement encapsulation is appropriate but no advantage accrues from pre-calcination. Some comments on the likely mechanism of leaching losses have been made.
The solids formation behavior in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) was experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was treated in the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. Solids formation conditions and mechanism were closely discussed. The solids formation during a concentration step can be explained by considering the formation of zirconium phosphate, phosphomolybdic acid and precipitation of strontium and barium nitrates and their solubilities. For the solids formation during the denitration step, at least four courses were observed; formation of an undissolved material by a chemical reaction with each other of solute elements (zirconium, molybdenum, tellurium) precipitation by reduction (platinum group metals) formation of hydroxide or carbonate compounds (chromium, neodymium, iron nickel, strontium, barium) and a physical adsorption to stable solid such as zirconium molybdate (nickel, strontium, barium).
The filtration characteristics of solids generated in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) were experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was processed according to the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. The filtration characteristics of solids depended on the particle size. The phosphomolybdic acid, which was very fine particle with about 0.1 m diameter, made slurry a difficult-to-filter slurry, if the phosphomolybdic acid content (wt%) to the whole solids in a slurry exceeded 50 wt%. On the contrary, the zirconium compounds (zirconium molybdate and zirconium telluride) had positive effect on filtration characteristics because of their relatively large particle size of about 3 to 5 m. When the zirconium compounds content was above 50 wt%, slurry became a easy-to-filter slurry. A centrifugal sedimentation was discussed as a solid/liquid separation technique for very fine particles such as phosphomolybdic acid. The theoretical feed flow rate corresponded to 0.1 m diameter particles was about 20 l/h at the centrifugal acceleration of about 8000 G.