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Technology, finance and development: An analysis of the World Bank as a technological institution

Charles Weiss and Nicolas Jéquier (Eds) Lexington Books, Lexington, Massachusetts, 1984, 343 pages, $37.00

Scientometrics
Author: Robert Morgan

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The banking landscape in the USA has been shaped by various political and economic forces throughout the years, and the interaction between banks and the state has, in the case of Citibank, been particularly close. The role of globalization, the increased number of mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector in the USA have in the last decade clearly contributed to the blurring of frontiers between domestic and international boundaries in financial operations. Citigroup has managed to hold both a strong local consumer base and a wide international network, which is present on a number of emerging markets and even micro-finance development today. The study reveals that interactions between finance and politics have played a significant role in explaining the idiosyncrasy of the American banking landscape, but one may wonder whether finance could have, on the domestic political scene in the USA, managed to outweigh politics or rather to free itself from political considerations.

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It is my argument that the reform of Hungarian higher education is subordinate to a larger neoliberal agenda involving the marketization of public services and is driven by the international financial community through the policies of the World Bank and the European Union. Specifically, the five most frequently cited goals of the reform of Hungarian higher education (the integration of state-run higher education institu__

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Csaki, Cs. - Lerman, Z. - Sotnikov, S. (2001): Farm Debt in the CIS: A Multi-Country Study of the Major Causes and Proposed Solutions. Washington, DC.: World Bank. Farm

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(1998): Hungary's public finances in an international context. In: Bokros, L. and Dethier, J. J. (eds): Public Finance Reform during the Transition. The Experience of Hungary. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank, 155

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A cikk az IMF és a Világbank kétévtizedes tevékenységének a magyar gazdaságpolitika alakulására gyakorolt hatását elemzi. Hivatkozási keretét a két nemzetközi pénzügyi intézmény által ellátott négy funkció (elemzés-előrejelzés és gazdaságpolitikai fel­ügyelet, globális szabályozás, hitelnyújtás, technikai segítségnyújtás) és az általuk kiváltott öt azonosított gazdaságpolitikai hatás (gazdaságpolitikai értékelés, gazda­ságpolitikai ajánlás, kemény befolyásolás, puha befolyásolás, keresztbefolyásolás) képezi. A szerző megállapítja, hogy a piacgazdaságra történő átmenet időszakában jelentős volt az IMF és a Világbank befolyásoló szerepe, de lényegesen kisebb a sokak által feltételezettnél. Az IMF befolyásoló hatása - a teljesítménykritériumokhoz kapcsolt hitelnyújtási gyakorlat miatt - elsősorban a kemény befolyásolás és az ún. IV. cikkely konzultációk során tett gazdaságpolitikai ajánlásokon keresztül érvényesült.

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János Kádár came into power in 1956 and remained in office until 1988. He has left his stamp on all aspects of Hungarian life. This paper will show that Kádár, despite the circumstances of his coming into power, lack of domestic support, and being an international outcast, he emerged as an effective political leader and an internationally respected statesman.

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University Press. Estrin , S. – Pelletier , A. ( 2018 ): Privatization in Developing Countries: What Are the Lessons of Recent Experience? World Bank Economic Review , 33 ( 1 ): 65

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( 2015 b): Sauska Villanyi Rose 2014, http://www.wine.com/v6/Sauska-Villanyi-Rose- 2014/wine/144193/Detail.aspx. Accessed: 26.10.2015. World , Bank ( 2014 ): Commodity

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: Aehyung Kim, Boris Pleskovic and Béla Személy

(1) Report about the joint CEU and World Bank conference held at the Central European University (CEU), Budapest, Hungary, on June 14-15, 2005 (Reviewed by Aehyung Kim and Boris Pleskovic), (2) 2005 Annual Meeting of the Society for Economic Dynamics held between 23-25 June, in Budapest, Hungary (Reviewed by Béla Személy)

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