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This paper summarizes some results of a wider research on foreign aid that was conducted in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in 2010. It seeks to describe the impressions and feelings of Palestinian aid beneficiaries as well as the roles and functions they attached to foreign aid. To capture and measure local perceptions on Western assistance a series of individual in depth interviews and few focus group interviews were conducted in the Palestinian territories. The interview transcripts were processed by content analysis. As research results show — from the perspective of aid beneficiaries — foreign aid is more related to human dignity than to any economic development. All this implies that frustration with the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict inevitably embraces the donor policies and practices too.

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Abstract

This paper investigates how social capital contributes to the pro-social behaviour of individuals in a post-conflict environment. I simultaneously investigate the pro-social behaviours in the periods of crisis (floods) and normality and observe whether (structural and relational) social capital has important influences in these two different times. The main novelty of this approach is that I model individuals' pro-social behaviours jointly for both the periods in focus and treat them as systematic outcomes of observed and unobserved (endogenous) influences. I find that more pro-social activities in the normal times are positively associated with such activities in the crisis period. Additionally, the results reveal the importance of (structural) social capital on pro-social behaviour – namely, group membership, size and ethnic structure of individual networks matter. Of particular interest for this post-conflict society and related literature is that greater ethnic diversity of individual networks is supportive for pro-social engagement of citizens. Finally, among the observed economic influences, I find that the respondents working in the informal economy report more pro-social activities while formal employment works more as financial intermediary for these engagements.

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: Ingrid-Mihaela Dragotă, Victor Dragotă, Andreea Curmei-Semenescu and Daniel Traian Pele

In the recent years, an increasing number of papers deepened cross-disciplinary studies, examining how different cultural values influence financial variables. The main objective of our paper is to test if the dominant world religions (Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Islamic, and Judaic), and, moreover, some Christian denominations (Catholicism, Protestantism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity) are related to some patterns in capital structure. Our paper considers distinctly the category of countries in which Agnostics, Atheists and non-religious people are predominant.

The results are promising. Companies located in the states with predominance of Islamic religion have a lower leverage, while the ones from predominantly Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Hindu and Judaic countries, as well as those in mainly Agnostic, Atheist and non-religious ones, are indebted more than those from mainly Protestant countries. The debt maturity seems to be correlated to the dominant religions or denominations, with companies in the predominantly Eastern Orthodox, Buddhist and Agnostic, Atheist and non-religious countries relying more on short term debt, and those in the majority Catholic, Judaic and Hindu countries on long term debt.

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The paper looks at the life situation of Czech and Slovak seniors between 2005 and 2016. The aim is to analyze data from the national standardized surveys (EU-SILC) and, based on the analyzed data, describe living conditions (an objectively measured standard of living and poverty rate) and subjective life satisfaction with an emphasis on seniors living in single-person households. The results show a large increase in the number of single-person households. The analysis of Czech households' income situation showed that the per-member monthly income for the whole population was similar to the average per-member income in households of seniors, while the group of the elderly living in single-person households appeared to be the most vulnerable one in terms of income. The differences between the seniors' incomes and expenditures indicated that about 40% of this data segment's members lived near the poverty line, while the most endangered segment members were seniors from single-person households.

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This paper outlines major theoretical and methodological problems in Quality of Work Life (QWL) research within organisational studies and discusses possible solutions, based on extensive literature analysis. An electronic search in the Scopus database found 1,244 publications utilising the QWL concept. From this sample we selected 387 papers dealing directly with QWL and compiled a final set of publications for detailed review. The literature analysis revealed the absence of a clear and concrete understanding of QWL, various (and often incomplete) approaches to QWL content and indicators and interference between QWL and other concepts such as ‘job satisfaction’, which all resulted in a general confusion about the notion in academic discussions. As a possible solution, we suggested distinguishing clearly and including the following in the single integrative research instrument: 1) an aggregate subjective QWL measurement tool and 2) an aggregate objective QWL measurement tool. Finally, we present arguments for a new understanding of QWL, combining subjective and objective measures in the context of a general integration between ‘working conditions’ and ‘needs satisfaction’ approaches.

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This study attempts to investigate how Hungarians think about life. By applying a nationwide representative survey of Hungarian adults, we wished to answer the following two research questions: a) what are the major metaphorical conceptualizations of life among Hungarians?; and b) what factors, such as socio-economic status and basic value orientations, might influence the prevalence for the metaphors used to talk about life? Our results suggest that there are considerable generational differences: while the negative mindset (in the form of more negative metaphors) is still common within the older generation, there is a shift towards a more positive and more “American” conceptualization of life among younger people in Hungary.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Lijuan Shi, Yuanyuan Wang, Hui Yu, Amanda Wilson, Stephanie Cook, Zhizhou Duan, Ke Peng, Zhishan Hu, Jianjun Ou, Suqian Duan, Yuan Yang, Jiayu Ge, Hongyan Wang, Li Chen, Kaihong Zhao and Runsen Chen

[0.00, 0.02], P  < 0.001) in the pathway of childhood trauma-anxiety-Internet gaming disorder. In addition, the two mediators, anxiety and depression, were significantly correlated ( r  = 0.50, Z  = 13.54, 95% CI [3.50, 5.05], P  < 0.001) (Fig. 1

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Quantification of red pigment content of fruits using destructive techniques is expensive and it enables only the analysis of batches but not of individual items. This study examined the feasibility of using non-destructive, spectrophotometric method to predict one of the most valuable internal quality indices, lycopene, in individual tomato fruits. An open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation and potassium supplementation on the yield and lycopene content of processed tomato fruit. Three different treatments (regularly irrigated RI, irrigation cut-off 30 days before harvest CO, and rainfed RF unirrigated control) and two different potassium fertilisations (P) were applied. Regular irrigation significantly decreased the lycopene content of tomato fruits. The CO treatment resulted in the highest total lycopene without potassium supplementation. Potassium supplementation, given at the time before fruit maturity, significantly increased the lycopene concentration of cultivar Brigade F1, independently of irrigation. The closest correlation was at 700 nm R2=0.38 and R2=0.45, between reflectance and the (all-E)-lycopene and the (9Z)+(13Z)-lycopene isomers, respectively.

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Dense in-group and scarce out-group relations (network segregation) often support the emergence of conflicts between groups. A key underlying mechanism is social control that helps to overcome the collective action problem within groups, but contributes to harmful conflicts among them in segregated settings. In this study, a new experimental design is introduced to test whether internalized social control affects contribution decisions in intergroup-related collective action. Subjects played single-shot Intergroup Public Good games in two groups of five each without communication. Subjects were connected via computers and connection patterns were manipulated to detect forms of social control that are activated conditional on expectations and on the composition of the artificially created ego-network. Results confirm the influence of behavioral confirmation and the conditional impact of internalized traitor and selective incentives. As an aggregated consequence of these social control effects, harmful intergroup outcomes were least likely when members of the groups were arranged in a mixed network. JEL classification: C91; C92; D74; H41; Z13

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The synthetic systemic acquired resistance elicitor benzothiadiazole (BTH) has been shown to elicit avenanthramide biosynthesis in the oat cultivar ‘Belle’. This report investigates the response of multiple oat cultivars to BTH as well as 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) at different growth stages. Oat seedlings (‘Gem’, ‘Kame’ and ‘Ogle’) were treated with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) or benzothiadiazole (BTH) at the three leaf (Z13) stage and subsequently assessed for accumulation of avenanthramides and analyzed for the activities of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:hydroxyanthranilate N-hydroycinnamoyl transferase (HHT). In addition, four cultivars (‘Belle’, ‘Gem’, ‘Kame’, and ‘Ogle’) were treated at the Z43 stage with BTH. The results indicated that after 48 h avenanthramides accumulated to significantly higher levels in the oat leaves in response to both INA and BTH treatment and this response tended to be fairly long lasting (336 h or more). Both elicitors also raised the activities of HHT enzyme in seedling leaves after 48 h. Genotypic differences in the kinetics and quantitative response were also observed in both the seedlings and the mature plants. The magnitude of avenanthramide production in the leaves was somewhat higher in the more mature plants. Filling grain also showed higher levels of avenanthramides compared to the untreated controls.

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