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The last period at the Aquincum Civil Town has long been a matter of dispute. Earlier researchers presumed a fourth century occupation phase at the settlement. However, re-examining these previous data (including an inscription, a coin hoard, walls, coins and several other finds of excavation contexts and even the “dark-earth” phenomenon) and analyzing the results of recent researches show that there is an obvious paucity of Late Roman finds. What is more, these results even show that most of them turn out to be third century finds. Based on the above mentioned, we can get to the conclusion, that the latest observable period in the Civil Town falls in the middle-end of the third century, or to the beginning of the fourth century at latest. Such an early abandonment of the Aquincum Civil Town is not unparalleled among Pannonian and other Western Roman provincial towns. And why was the Aquincum Civil Town abandoned relatively early? The reasons might be sought in the, by that time, already deteriorated fortifications and the loss of markets. No further (systematic) use could be demonstrated here in layers, finds, or constructions. Nevertheless, since a few fourth century finds still occur, the possibility cannot be excluded that certain areas were still sporadically used, particularly when buildings were mainly mined for spolia.

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Land abandonment is a widespread phenomenon in agricultural systems, especially in former communist countries of Eastern and South-eastern Europe. Moreover, Croatia was affected by acts of war which enhanced the depopulation of marginal areas impelling further land abandonment. Agricultural landscapes in Croatia are highly parcelled with various proportions of forest habitats due to traditional smallholder farming systems. Secondary successions as a consequence of land abandonment affect farmland birds that are among the most endangered bird species in Europe. We examined bird communities along a habitat gradient in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. We used the share of woody vegetation cover as a proxy measure for land abandonment that we classified in four classes. Our results showed no significant Shannon Wiener Index differences of bird communities along the land abandonment gradient. However, there were differences in abundances when we examined bird guilds such as farmland, forest and “other” birds separately. However, the conservation value of each of the four land abandonment classes did not show significant differences. We extracted single bird species such as the Yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella), Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio), Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) and European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) as potential indicator species for the four examined land abandonment levels. With these four species we successfully modelled the distribution of the recorded bird assemblages at the plot level along the four vegetation succession stages. We emphasized the need to develop new and integrative land use management concepts for areas affected by land abandonment in order to formulate sound conservation policy.

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Though the interplay of grazing intensity and the availability of resources is a key driver in grassland composition, very few studies focused on trait changes after abandonment along productivity gradients. Through a comparative approach, we aimed to assess the context-dependent effects of long-term grazing cessation on functional composition and diversity in sub-Mediterranean grasslands. We hypothesized that variability of topography, soil and vegetation structure on a fine scale drives the trait-based dynamics after long-term abandonment, also influencing the patterns of functional diversity. On a calcareous mountain ridge of central Italy, we collected data on species cover and traits, site characteristics, soil depth and vegetation structure in 0.5 m × 0.5 m plots located in extensively grazed pastures and in grasslands abandoned since the early 1970s. We analysed patterns of species and traits in relation to environmental variables and management type, and trends in functional diversity (FD, Rao’s quadratic entropy) along a productivity gradient. We found that grazing cessation reduced the overall FD and that the direction of species and trait response after long-term grazing cessation were affected, on a fine scale, by the soil depth / productivity gradient. In dryer conditions, species and functional responses were less affected by abandonment, and were devoted to resistance to both stress and disturbance. In abandoned pastures we detected a significant decrease in FD with increasing productivity, leading to a shift from functional strategies devoted to grazing avoidance and tolerance to those devoted to competition for light and resource acquisition. This trend was related to the filtering effect of coarse tall grasses, which spread in highly productive conditions. In grazed grasslands, we detected an overall increasing trend of FD with increasing productivity, confirming the key role of extensive grazing in maintaining high levels of FD.

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The present research examined the consequences of father abandonment for the reproductive strategies of girls from the Caribbean island of Curaçao. The sample consisted of 189 girls with an average age of 19.11 (SD = 2.97). Respondents were categorized in three groups, namely: ‘early father absence’ (abandoned between 0–5 years of age), ‘late father absence’ (abandoned between 6–13 years of age) and ‘father presence’ (father present during childhood). The results showed that compared to ‘late father absence’ girls and ‘father presence’ girls, ‘early father absence’ girls initiated sexual intercourse at a significant younger age. Moreover, they were less interested in getting married and in having grandchildren. These differences could not be explained by differences in educational level of the participants or occupational level of the father and the mother. There were no significant differences between the three groups in the age of menarche, the total number of sexual partners and the desire to have children. From an evolutionary life history perspective, we discuss possible explanations for, and implications of, these findings.

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This study identifies the long lasting impacts of former cultivation on soils, seed banks and above-ground vegetation of limestone grasslands. We compared the resilience of three crop fields cultivated in the 19th century and abandoned (Abandoned Fields) with three grasslands which have never been cultivated (Old Grasslands). Grasslands were located in the Nature reserve of Grand-Pierre and Vitain valleys in France. Sites were identified using historical sources. Chemical and physical soil properties, above-ground vegetation and soil seed bank (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm) were studied. Data were analysed using a multivariate and univariate analyses to detect the effects/impacts of ancient cultivation. Our results clearly show that soil properties (e.g., calcium, carbonate, clay contents), above-ground vegetation (species diversity, moss and lichen cover) and seed bank (floristic composition, species-richness and diversity) are still impacted more than one century after their abandonment. Species richness of both above ground vegetation and seed bank are higher in old grasslands than in formerly cultivated fields. In the seed bank of the formerly cultivated soils we also found the presence of a very rare arable weed species (Althaea hirsuta) which has not been inventoried for a long time in the above-ground vegetation of the nature reserve. The resilience of formerly cultivated limestone grasslands might be influenced by the present management regime (site effect). Nevertheless, the resilience period of limestone grasslands is very long-more than one century-and return to an initial state might be difficult or impossible to reach.

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Significant proportion of crop lands have been abandoned as management strategies have changed in Central and Eastern Europe in the past decades. The study of insect versus plant communities in such areas could help us understand how these processes take place, and whether these communities return to a semi-natural state maintained by human activities. Amongst insects ants, as ecosystem engineers, are a perfect target group in this respect. We studied epigaeic ant and plant communities of abandoned old-fields in Romania. Contrary to our expectations, the total number of ant species did not increase with time during succession on old-fields contrary to plants, where an increase was registered in the total number. Disturbancetolerant ant species dominated the ant communities throughout the successional gradient, while in the case of plants a transition was found from weed-dominated to semi-natural communities. The diversity of both ant and plant communities increased after the 1-year stage, but the patterns were different. While a return to semi-natural state could be observed in plants during old-field succession, such a definite change did not occur in ants. This might be caused by the landscape context: the lack of connectivity of old-fields to larger natural areas. While plant propagules of semi-natural and natural habitat species can still successfully colonize the old fields even under such conditions, ant colonizers are mainly disturbance-tolerant species typical for agricultural areas, which can be hardly replaced by typical grassland species. Our findings underline the existence of important discrepancies between plant and ant community succession, mostly treated as paralleling each other. This is the first study to handle the effect of abandonment on ant and plant communities simultaneously in Eastern Europe.

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One of the best-known hypotheses of translation studies, the Explicitation Hypothesis, postulates that explicitation is “inherent” in the process of translation and may therefore be regarded as a “universal of translation”. In recent years, a number of corpus-based studies on explicitation have been produced, most of which purport to offer evidence in favor of this hypothesis. As a consequence, the alleged universality of explicitation has achieved the status of dogma in translation studies. The aim of the present article is to show that the dogma of translation-inherent explicitation rests on fallacious theoretical considerations and premature interpretations of empirical data. In the first place, it will be argued that the Explicitation Hypothesis strictly speaking does not even qualify as a scientific hypothesis, since it is unmotivated, unparsimonious and vaguely formulated. In the second place, it will be shown that previous studies on explicitation fail to provide conclusive evidence for the translation-inherent nature of explicitation due to a number of methodological shortcomings.

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Community Ecology
Authors:
Z. Dajić Stevanović
,
A. Peeters
,
S. Vrbničanin
,
I. Šoštarić
, and
S. Aćić

Őckinger, E., A.K. Eriksson and H.G. Smith. 2006. Effects of grassland abandonment, restoration and management on butterflies and vascular plants. Biol. Conserv. 133:291–300. Smith H

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not argue for the abandonment of the scientific paradigm, rather for the abandonment of its privileged position. Decolonizing psychedelic science will require allowing multiple perspectives to coexist and contribute equally to our efforts going forward

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Social Change, Dress and Identity

Observations on the Disintegration of Peasant Culture as Exemplified by Rural Women’s Clothing in Hungary from the First World War to the End of the Kádár Era Socialism

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author:
Ágnes Fülemile

specific data collection and fieldwork. I studied the changes in peasant women’s clothing in villages where the abandonment of folk costumes, the transition from peasant dress to a more urban dress, i.e., “un-dressing,” 1 took place between the two world

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