can be useful in conceptualizing academicfreedom: an emerging freedom (apparently on track for codification as a binding instrument) under international law and a habitually appearing constitutional provision. A Parliamentary Assembly Resolution 1 on
least the decline in long-established academic traditions (Ward 2007 ). They have questioned the prerequisites of individual academicfreedom and collective self-regulation (Henkel 2007 ). Management has been substantially centralised in small senior
The Czech Academy of Sciences and Czech universities are in the beginning of the implementation of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). How to deal successfully with the GDPR in a specific environment that is often international, funded by many resources (a mixture of various national and international, public and private funds and companies, with their own financial and administrative rules), having their specific tasks, missions and cultures (academic freedoms, scientific excellence, competitive environment)? This article focuses on the GDPR's impact on the life of the research entities, such are research institutes and universities. The GDPR is an EU regulation that should have equal legal effect over the entire European Union; however, in certain specific parts of the GDPR specific implementing legislative measures are expected of the EU member states. Moreover, due to different history of the legislation regulating personal data protection in each EU member state, the article focuses mainly on the area of the Czech Republic. The scope of this article is limited to specific issues of scientific life (e.g. open access, open data, peer review), other general aspects of the GDPR (e.g. handling the employees’ personal data, the personal data of research subjects) are not the objects of this text.
Bárd, P. (2020) The rule of law and academicfreedom or the lack of it in Hungary. European Political Science , Vol. 19. No. 1. pp. 87–96. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41304-018-0171-x
Bókay A. & Derényi A. (2010) A magyar
“academicfreedom”. In a bureaucratic culture, the rules become important elements, which create consistency and equality for opportunities on the one hand, while they bind behaviour to rules resulting in inflexibility on the other ( McNay, 1995 ). In an
( Ariès, 1962 ) or loosely organized unions, such as guilds, which were comparable to contemporary universities with a degree of academicfreedom from the Church and the state ( Vauchez & Pedersen, 1997 ). These medieval universities did not experience