syllable, a quantity, an accent, or an aspiration. This is one of Consentius’ definitions of barbarism (Consent. barb. 1.18–2.1): barbarismus est dictio aliqua sui parte uitiosa. hoc ad adiectionem et de- tractionem et inmutationem et transmutationem
Human speech shows an unparalleled richness in geographic variation. However, few attempts have been made to understand this linguistic diversity from an evolutionary and comparative framework. Here, we a) review extensively what is known about geographic variation of acoustic signals in terrestrial mammals, using common terminology adopted from linguistics to define different forms of variation (i.e. accents and dialects), and b) examine which factors may determine this variation (i.e. genetic, environmental and/or social). Heretofore, terminology has been used inconsistently within and across taxa, and geographic variation among terrestrial mammals has never been defined as in human speech. Our results show that accents, phonologically different varieties, occur widely in terrestrial mammals. Conversely, dialects, lexically and phonologically different varieties, have only been documented thus far in great white-lined bats, red deer, chimpanzees and orangutans. Although relatively rare among terrestrial mammals, dialects are thus not unique to humans. This finding also implies that such species possess the capacity for acoustic learning. Within primates, the two great apes showing dialects are those who also show extensive cultures in the wild, suggesting that, in hominoids, intricacy of acoustic geographic variation is potentially associated with cultural complexity; namely, both have derived from selection increasingly favoring social learning across varied contexts, including the acoustic domain.
During a tour of Austria-Hungary in December 1910, Debussy met a young Hungarian Francophile composer, Géza Vilmos Zágon (1889–1918). The latter sent him the manuscript of the Pierrot lunaire, a cycle of six melodies from the collection of the Belgian poet Albert Giraud. Debussy reviews the vocal line, emphasizing that the corrections he has made almost all concern “prosodic accents.” This rereading of a work by a young composer is a unique case for Debussy and testifies not only to his openness to young composers, but also to his interest in Giraud's poems, as André Schaeffner had so rightly anticipated in 1953 in his article “Variations Schoenberg.” It also reveals Debussy's deep sensitivity to the French language verse and rhythm.
of morphological vs. phonological effects in stress assignment in lexical stress systems, i.e. in stress systems where stress position is dependent on the underlying 1 specification of some syllables as carrying accent ( Revithiadou 1999 ; van der
called “ideological underpinnings”? Do we observe changes in the ranking mainstream? Can we expect new accents of higher education policy, which will successfully call for another “map” of the higher education system? The discourse about the theoretical
This might have been done for the sake of performers; it should have been easier to orientate if the same phrases had the same metric accents, especially in the case of a movement that applies an asymmetric meter in quite a fast tempo