result of G × E. Because of these important variations, yield stability is an important criterion for the development of a new released variety. Phenotypic stability, yield stability, and adaptation or adaptability are the most often used terms sometimes
Authors:Z. Hegyi, T. Spitkó, C. Szőke, F. Rácz, T. Berzy, J. Pintér, and L. Marton
The adaptability of twelve single cross maize hybrids was investigated at five different locations in Hungary over a three-year period. The characters examined were individual plant production (total mass of the ears on a single plant), thousand kernel mass, number of kernel rows, ear length, number of kernels per row, shelling % and the assimilating leaf area above the main ear.Among these yield components, the individual plant production, the ear length, the number of kernels per row and the grain-cob ratio (shelling %) were influenced to the greatest extent by the year, followed by the variety and the location. The greatest average yield was achieved by the tested hybrids at all five locations in 1997 (263 g/plant). The average yields in 1998 and 1999 were significantly lower (221 and 203 g/plant, respectively). The outstanding yields achieved in 1997 could be attributed to the favourable ecological conditions, which led to the development of secondary ears in Keszthely and Sopronhorpács. At the other three locations there was only one ear per plant, but these ears were longer than in the following years. The greatest year effect was recorded in Sopronhorpács, where the individual plant production amounted to 305 g/plant in 1997 and 238 g/plant in the worst year, 1999. In Gyöngyös conditions were very dry in all three years, so the year effect was least pronounced at this location (grand mean of 195 g/plant in 1997 and 201 g/plant in 1999). Stability analysis was carried out using the coefficient of variance for individual plant production. Hybrids Mv 3, Mv 5, Mv 9 and Mv 12 were found to have the best adaptability. The shelling % was not significantly influenced by the location; the grain-cob ratio is relatively stable for maize hybrids. A correlation was found between the individual plant production and the leaf area above the main ear (R
=0.66). Hybrids with the largest leaf area above the main ear also had the greatest ear mass.
In any breeding program, it is necessary to screen and identify phenotypically stable genotypes that could perform uniformly under different environmental conditions. Such a breeding effort requires basic information of genotype × environment (G × E) interaction. Twenty genotypes including hybrids and aromatic rice were evaluated in 8 environments in two production systems viz; System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and normal cultivation environments during kharif season (May–October) 2009. The experiment was laid down in RBD with two replications in a plot of 1 m2. Pooled analysis for G × E interaction and stability revealed that the genotypes and environments were highly significant (p < 0.01) for all twelve characters studied. The G × E interaction was significant for six traits including all key components of SRI except tillers no. Both linear and non-linear components contributed towards G × E interaction. Stability parameters identified genotypes PR-114 and HKR-47 as stable for grain yield per plant and HKR-127, HKR-120, CSR-30, Pusa-1121 and IR-64 for test grain weight. Genotypes identified suitable for favourable environments were HKR-126, HSD-1, PAU-201and Govind while for unfavourable environment were HSD-1, HKRH-1094, HKR-48 and PAU-201 for different traits. IR 64 and Pusa 1121 registered 24.31 and 12.54% increase in yield in SRI over normal production system. These genotypes need to be tested in macro environments over space and time and could be utilized for direct cultivation as well as for improvements of other cultivars.
Authors:S. Sareen, R. Munjal, N. Singh, B. Singh, R. Verma, B. Meena, J. Shoran, A. Sarial, and S. Singh
Terminal heat, which is referred as increase in temperature during grain filling, is one of the important stress factors for wheat production. Current estimates indicate that wheat crop grown on around 13.5mha in India is affected by heat stress. In order to meet the challenges of high temperature ahead of global warming, concerted efforts are needed to evaluate germplasm for heat tolerance and identify and develop genotypes suitable for such stressed environments. The advanced wheat genotypes developed for stress and normal environments by different research centers were evaluated across 7 locations representing varied agroclimatic zones during 2007–08 and 2008–09 to study their adaptability for heat stress and non-stress environments. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis for G × E interactions revealed differences amongst locations to phenology and grain yield. Genotype RAJ 4083 developed for cultivation under late sown conditions in peninsular zone was also found adaptable to timely sown conditions. Similarly, HD 2733 a cultivar of NEPZ timely sown conditions and PBW 574 an advanced breeding line of NWPZ late sown conditions was found adapted to Peninsular zone. The cultivar RAJ 3765 showed specific adaptability to Pantnagar in NWPZ. Genotype NW 3069 developed for NEPZ timely sown conditions have shown adaptability to number of locations; timely sown conditions at Karnal and Hisar in NWPZ and Niphad in PZ. Likewise, WH 1022 developed for NEPZ late sown conditions exhibited specific adaptability to all timely sown locations in NWPZ.
Authors:Francesca Grisafi, Elisabetta Oddo, Maria Letizia Gargano, Simone Inzerillo, Gianni Russo, and Giuseppe Venturella
The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required.
A XIX. század második felétől Magyarországon is elterjedő telepes lakóterületeken épült házak nem csak egyedi építészeti értékeikkel jelenthetnek védendő értéket: a jó minőségű, magas színvonalú telepek olyan városléptékű többletértéket adnak hozzá a településképhez, melyet a szakmai közmegegyezés védelmi eszközök segítségével kíván megőrizni. Cikkünkben azt a hipotézist kívánjuk igazolni és mérhető indikátorokkal alátámasztani, hogy ezek az eszközök (védelmi eszköztár, településrendezési eszközök, közös tulajdon/kezelés, felújításhoz nyújtott anyagi támogatás és társadalmi szemléletformálás) csak akkor lehetnek sikeresek és eredményesek, ha nem állnak feloldhatatlan ellentétben a lakók részéről a lakásokkal, házakkal és együttesekkel szemben támasztott kortárs funkcionális, műszaki és erkölcsi követelményrendszerrel. A vizsgálathoz 5-5 városépítészeti és épületléptékű indikátort vezettünk be, melyekkel leírható a lakások és a nekik helyet adó házak és telepek műszaki és morális időtállósága, illetve a kortárs követelményekhez való adaptálhatósága. A bevezetett indikátorrendszert három magyarországi, alacsony-intenzív telepes lakóegyüttes példáján keresztül teszteljük, melyek eltérő korúak, léptékűek és más-más társadalmi csoportot céloztak meg felépítésük idején, eltérő eszközrendszer védi őket, így viszonylag széles spektrumot képviselnek a hasonló telepek között.
Authors:M. Jolánkai, Á. Tarnawa, H. F. Nyárai, Z. Szentpétery, and M. K. Kassai
Long-term trials are established in order to explore and observe plant and soil interrelationships in situ. Long-term trials can be described as live instruments providing ceteris paribus conditions in temporal sequences.
This review provides an introduction to major long-term trials in Hungary and in other parts of the world. It gives a brief summary of the origins of plant nutritional research, beginning with some data from Homer and the willow tree experiment of van Helmont, as well as the discovery of physiological processes by von Liebig, Lawes and Boussingault. The most profound long-term trials, like the Orto Botanico in Padova, the Linné Garden in Uppsala and the Broadbalk in Rothamsted are presented in the paper.
The agronomic, educational and scientific benefits of the major Hungarian long-term trials are also discussed, from Westsik (1929) to Martonvásár and the National Plant Nutrition Trials (OMTK) set up in 1963. There is a list of experimental sites giving information on the most important recent long-term trial locations and their activities.
Authors:G. Szalai, M. Pál, E. Horváth, T. Janda, and E. Páldi
In the course of the Maize Consortium Project, investigations were made on the defence mechanisms employed by maize against various abiotic stress factors (low temperature, cadmium) and on the effects exerted by two compounds (S-methylmethionine, salicylic acid) capable of improving the stress resistance of plants to certain abiotic stresses. Salicylic acid (SA) was found to inhibit the uptake of cadmium (Cd), but caused damage to the roots, including a reduction in the activity of phytochelatin synthase (PCS), which meant that preliminary treatment with SA aggravated the damaging effect of Cd. It was also proved that as the result of 2-day treatment with Cd, there was a continuous rise in the Cd level in the plants, more Cd being accumulated in young leaves than in older ones. The PCS activity increased greatly after 24 hours, both in the leaves and in the roots, declining again after 2 days. The effect of SA was examined in both the hybrids and their parental lines, and the effect of this compound on the intensity of alternative respiration was also investigated. A comparison of chilling tolerance data and antioxidant enzyme activity indicated that these two parameters were not directly correlated to each other, i.e. antioxidant enzyme activity values could not be used to draw reliable conclusions on the chilling tolerance of maize lines and hybrids. With regard to the interaction between alternative respiration and salicylic acid, it was proved that exogenous hydrogen peroxide caused a similar increase in the ratio of alternative respiration to that observed after salicylic acid treatment. Abbreviations: SA, salicylic acid; Cd, cadmium; PCS, phytochelatin synthase; SMM, S-methylmethionine; PCs, phytochelatins; PAR, photosynthetically active radiation; TTC, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride; KCN, potassium cyanide; PSII, 2nd photochemical system; POD, guaiacol peroxidase; APX, ascorbate peroxidase; GR, glutathione reductase