A survey of Vergil’s uses of the word umbra and comparisons with its uses in other Roman poets reveals that Vergil was the first poet to deploy umbra, previously neutral or negative in connotation, with positive associations, and that he may have been the first to coin it as meaning ‘ghost’. Unlike many other poets, Vergil exploits the multivalent potential of umbra, requiring readers to interpret his usage. The fact that all of Vergil’s varied uses of umbra appear in the Culex suggests that it was written by an astute follower who was perceptive to the poet’s nuanced usage of the term.
Authors:K. C. Garg, Suresh Kumar, and Kashmiri Lal
An analysis of 16891 publications published by Indian scientists during 1993-2002 and indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded
(Web of Science) indicates that the publication output in the agricultural sciences is on the decline since 1998 onwards.
'Dairy and animal sciences' followed by 'veterinary sciences' constitute the largest component of the Indian agricultural
research output. Agricultural universities and institutes under the aegis of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
are the major producers of research output. Most of the papers have been published in domestic journals and in low normalized
impact factor journals with a low rate of citation per paper. Most of the highly productive institutions are either agricultural
universities or the institutes under the aegis of ICAR. Most of the prolific authors are from the highly productive institutions.
However, only a few highly cited authors are from highly productive institutions.
Turning under the aegis of our (former) classic once again:The World is ruled by spontaneity which escapes rationally oriented science. And we, as properhuman beings, and (former) disciples, may solemnly become itspsychosomatic devices.Or, if indeed,-metrics is actually in a difficult situation, let us try and help. No classics are needed for that, are they? Any task left, for a (former) empirist?Occasionally, it is worth having a choice.
In the poetry of the late Republic and the age of Augustus, a gradual expansion and Romanisation of the role of Magna Mater can be observed. In Catullus, she appears only as a goddess from Asia Minor linked to Attis’ repulsive act. In Lucretius, Cybele is identical with Rhea, which remarkably changes her position as she becomes the mother of all Olympian gods. In Vergil, in addition to being the mother of all gods, she is also the Chief Goddess of the Trojans, who plays an active role in shaping Aeneas’ fate. The most thorough picture of the Goddess is provided by Ovid, who covers every detail of the cult, placing emphasis on embracing the cult. He goes to great lengths to attribute Roman origin to its apparently foreign features, i.e., he tries to Romanise the already embraced cult as much as possible. All this must have taken place under the aegis of and in accordance with Augustus’ religious policy.
A környezetvédelmi büntetőjog a közelmúltban mind Franciaországban, mind Magyarországon az európai uniós környezeti büntetőjog égisze alatt fejlődött. Franciaországban és Magyarországon is létezett környezetvédelmi büntetőjog az európai uniós zöldbüntetőjog keletkezése előtt is. A francia és a magyar zöldbüntetőjogban hasonlóságokat és eltéréseket is találunk. Magyarországon új büntető törvénykönyv készül. Az új magyar Btk. további lépéseket tesz egy kongruens európai zöldbüntetőjog megteremtése felé.
Various mystical traditions and much of modern scholarship sever the connection between mysticism and metaphysical claims. For Aquinas, differing ontological claims both generate and correlate logically to diverse mystical claims, under the aegis of one analogous notion of truth. In this way, Aquinas' mystical theology offers a metaphysics of mystical union, according to which a thing's nobility of being corresponds to its degree of union with God. Aquinas' metaphysical positions both define and circumscribe his interpretation of religious experience. This examines the points of contact between metaphysics and mysticism. Second, it takes the metaphysical issue of monism versus pluralism as a locus for intersecting truth claims in metaphysics and mysticism. Third, examines the context, formulation and solution to the problem of the 'one and the many' within Aquinas' metaphysics, including its relevance for his mystical theology. Fourth, it examines a metaphysical paradox taken from the domain of the intellect, and show how it stands at the threshold of mystical experience for Aquinas.
Inter-laboratory tests are a means of assessing the analytical coherence of medical laboratories. In radiotoxicology, this kind of exercise makes it possible to keep up with laboratory know-how and with the evolution and relative performances of analytical techniques (precision and reproducibility). However, the goal of the laboratories taking part in these annual exercises is not only to check the accuracy of their results. The analytical discussions and the chance to compare experiences enrich the group's general competence.French biologists have been organizing annual radiotoxicology intercomparison exercises since 1978. The exercises are carried out within the framework of a working group (GT1) operating under the aegis of the French Atomic Energy Commission's (CEA) Medical Coordinator. Using reports and diagrams which present the results obtained by the participants in the form of syntheses, the authors describe how the exercises for determining actinides in excreta (urine and faeces) are organized, how the results are evaluated in terms of the analytical methods used, and the improvements made in analytical and metrological performance.Up until 1985, these exercises were limited to French laboratories. Since then, the exercises have acquired an international dimension, opening up to include interested foreign radiochemists, initially from European laboratories, and now from laboratories worldwide. At the present time, 35 laboratories representing 9 countries take part regularly in these intercomparison exercises.
The auctions held yearly four or five times under the aegis of the society ensured monopoly for the Saint George Guild for many years owing to the special legal regulations. The economic processes during World War I put an end to this favourable situation by 1917 when several rich auctioneers appeared who went into business – on the West European model – instead of remaining within the frames of a society. The auction-house of the Ernst Museum that was active for decades had larger turnover in a single auction than the Guild had in a whole year. The society that was financially pushed into the background was hindered by the lost war and the 1919 half-year communist power that radically changed the social and economic situation. From 1920 an auction or two were still announced, but ever rarer and in 1923 it stopped this activity. By then the Saint George Guild had fulfilled its function: regular art auctions were institutionalized, art collection and art trade had now consolidated frames that already superseded those of the initiator in the early 1920s.
The authors discuss herein, and present the specialists, a recent find related to the classical Graeco-Roman pantheon. It is a bronze figurine of Minerva discovered in a waste pit from the southern cemetery of the urban centre at Apulum, located on the Furcilor Hill-“Podei”. Although archaeology records no workshop making such pieces, this figurine, rather modest in artistic terms, had likely been produced at Apulum or in one of the workshops from the Roman province of Dacia. It is a solid cast, in the “lost-form” technique, sized as follows: height – 7.2 cm, width – 1.9 cm, thickness – 0.9 cm. On the basis of its execution, which lacks accurate rendering of facial features, yet also the absent Gorgon on the aegis, the votive figurine may be dated to the 3rd century AD. Since it was not discovered in a grave, but in a waste pit, it is rather difficult to make a connection with any possible funerary function of the goddess. The ancient prototype of this kind of representation is the cult statue of Athena Parthenos of Phidias, housed on the Acropolis of Athens. The other six bronze votive figurines of Minerva discovered in Dacia do not resemble that discussed here.