Authors:KE Nurullahoğlu-Atalık, S Kutlu, H Solak, and R Özen Koca
knowledge, there are no studies that analyze the combined effects of atorvastatin and cilostazol on vascular smooth muscle reactivity.
Maturation and senescence are physiological process. The effects of biological age on the responsiveness of the
Authors:György Szabó, László Környei, Éva Keller, Gabriella Lengyel, and János Fehér
The estimated amounts of alcohol consumed regularly are data recorded on the basis of patients’ self-report at history-taking. In many instances, however, patients do not genuinely inform their physician on the extent of their alcohol consumption, and in some cases they simply conceal it. In such cases determination of the amount of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) can be helpful.
To determine the levels of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in a healthy population.
The authors performed examinations among inhabitants of a small Hungarian town (Enese). Data of 409 individuals (average age: 49.7 years) have been processed. They included 204 men (average age: 49.3 years) and 205 women (average age: 50.3 years). Subjects were divided into two groups: 1) those who consumed no alcohol or only small quantities (< 40 g/day) and 2) the so-called social drinkers who consumed an amount corresponding to 40 to 60 g alcohol/day. Levels of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin were measured by immune turbidimetry with an automated instrument Hitachi 912 (Roche USA).
In persons consuming no or only small quantities of alcohol, the levels of CDT rise gradually with the increasing age. In the age group between 45 and 65 years the values are significantly higher than in people under 25 years of age. In the younger age group under 45 years, women were found to have significantly higher levels than men. In the social drinkers (beverage consumption corresponding to 40 to 60 g alcohol/day) the values were higher in all cases as compared to those in the non-consuming group, and in the age group between 45 and 65 years the levels were significantly higher than in the younger age group. Of them, men had significantly higher values as compared to women.
CDT levels show a moderate rise with the age, and social drinking increases the values as well.
Authors:A. Svetina, Željka Matašin, Alenka Tofant, and et al.
Haematological and biochemical analyses of blood were performed in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) kept in small ponds. Caught and anaesthetised carp were clinically examined and blood samples were taken at regular intervals during the three years. In the first year of examinations, the haemoglobin and haematocrit values of carp fry significantly increased (P<0.01) from June to September. The intensive growth of carp in the summer period in the second year was accompanied by adequate erythropoiesis. During hibernation haematocrit and haemoglobin significantly decreased (P<0.05) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) increased (P<0.01) in both scaly and mirror carp. MCHC increased also with the age and increasing body weight of the fish. Mirror carp had lower haematocrit and haemoglobin values than scaly carp (P<0.01). Comparative haematological analyses between carp of normal and poor body condition showed that moderate anaemia appeared in those with poor body condition. The results indicate that there is marked seasonal and age-dependent variation in the values of haematocrit and haemoglobin. Pond water quality investigations indicated good environmental conditions. A 50% increase (P<0.05) of glucose concentration was found from June to September in the blood plasma of carp in the third year, accompanied by an even more increased (80%; P<0.01) concentration of total lipids. At the same time, considerable changes of cholesterol and total protein concentrations were not observed. The results suggest that the investigated haematological and biochemical variables could be successfully utilised in monitoring the metabolic balance and health status of fish in intensive culture.
Rousseau is generally associated with the eighteenth century French philosophes in what Peter Gay called “The Party of Humanity.”While it is true that Rousseau shared many of the progressive political
and philosophical ideas of that group of enlightened figures, he parted company with them on basic issues of theology and
This is apparent in the reading of Rousseau's published works - where his religious instincts especially, separate him from
the radical wing of the French Enlightenment. There is an enormous distance between his “Profession du vicaire savoyard”and
Diderot's Penses philosophiques.
It is in his great correspondence, however, that one may see just how Rousseau differed from his colleagues in the struggle
against religious and political obscurantism. In his letters he discourses brilliantly on basic metaphysical questions and
proposes intuition over reason as a more serious intellectual modality. Beyond even those philosophes such as Voltaire, who embraced a kind of vapid deism, Rousseau uses his correspondence to endorse a mystical conception of
the universe in which emotion, imagination and feeling are inextricably bound up.
In his survey of contemporary philosophical ideas Rousseau expresses as much scorn for intolerant religious dogma as he does
for the extreme expressions of atheism. There are many letters in which he argues against the materialist interpretation of
matter and demands of the atheist school convincing intellectual proofs for their theses.
In the correspondence Rousseau has a great deal to say about his own conception of God, immortality and the soul. His eschatology
is, of course, different from the conventional Christian one; he cannot or will not accept the idea of eternal damnation.
In his discussion of religion in the letters Rousseau ranges far and wide; he considers, interalia, extra terrestrial life, the idea of free will, the purpose of rapture and theodicy.
In this last arena, where a just God is seen to permit evil in the world, Rousseau waxes eloquent in trying to solve this
age-old theological quandary. He does so by exploring definitions of the word evil and emphasizing the orderly nature of the
universe. In this context, Rousseau, a master of the religious dialectic, reduces the problem of evil and death through an
astute linguistic approach.
Rousseau's final plea, as extracted from his correspondence, is that human beings must recognize the limits of reason as an
instrument capable of solving all the metaphysical problems.