Low temperature reactivity in agglomerates containing iron oxide
Studies in the Ca(OH)2–C–Fe2O3 system
Introduction Worldwide, iron and steelmaking facilities generate between 30 and 40 million tons of by-product dusts that are feasible for recycling [ 1 ]. The recycling and utilization of by-product agglomerates containing
Summary The paper assesses the empirical foundation of two largely held assumptions in science policy making, namely scale and agglomeration effects. According to the former effect, scientific production may be subject to increasing returns to scale, defined at the level of administrative units, such as institutes or departments. A rationale for concentrating resources on larger units clearly follows from this argument. According to the latter, scientific production may be positively affected by external economies at the geographical level, so that concentrating institutes in the same area may improve scientific spillover, linkages and collaborations. Taken together, these arguments have implicitly or explicitly legitimated policies aimed at consolidating institutes in public sector research and at creating large physical facilities in a small number of cities. The paper is based on the analysis of two large databases, built by the authors from data on the activity of the Italian National Research Council in all scientific fields and of the French INSERM in biomedical research. Evidence from the two institutions is that the two effects do not receive empirical support. The implications for policy making and for the theory of scientific production are discussed.
Consumption of natural water (public and bottled) is very important for people from a radiological point of view. Uranium and polonium alpha-emitters belong to the most radiotoxic elements for human. In the paper, a study of the radioactive content of drinking (public) water in Gdask agglomeration (Poland) was carried out. 238U, 234U and 210Po activity concentrations were determined by alpha-spectrometry with low-level-activity silicon detectors. The results revealed that the mean concentration of 238U, 234U and 210Po in analyzed water sample were 2.76, 2.86 and 0.48 mBq·dm–3, respectively. Finally, effective does due to uranium and polonium emissions were calculated for drinking water samples for the inhabitants of the agglomeration.
): Agglomeration and Regional Growth. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 3960, Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR), London. Agglomeration and Regional Growth
The role of spatial proximity to innovation inputs (such as industrial R&D or academic research) in technological change has been widely studied in the economics literature. However, most of the papers in this research area are based on data for technologically advanced countries such as the US and parts of the EU. During transition recently accessed countries of Central Europe have undergone a dramatic restructuring process that significantly affected their systems of innovation: R&D expenditures, academic research and patenting activity have declined. According to some research results FDI constituted the most significant drive of technological change during the 1990s. Is there any role of spatially mediated knowledge spillovers in innovation in these countries? To what extent regional systems of innovation have started to develop in Central European new EU member countries? These questions have rarely been raised in the relevant literature. Using regional data this paper adopts econometric modelling techniques commonly applied in innovation research to study the role of localised knowledge inputs in technological change in Hungary.
result was to study the effects of not only these ingredients which were our primary focus (milk powder, unsaturated fatty acids) but also those which presence was necessary and unavoidable (lactose, maltodextrin). Agglomeration
from powdered baby formulas (mixtures, agglomerates). Materials and methods Materials The powders used in this study were: skimmed and whole milk powder produced by District Dairy Cooperative in Koło
control mixtures, mixtures containing GGBFS, SF, or Glass 2 (coarse glass). Mixtures containing Glass 1 (mixture 2 and mixture 7) demonstrated fluorescence and well-defined reaction rims at locations where fine glass was agglomerated together as a result
” (NETZSCH-Gerätebau, Germany) was used. Results and discussion Transmission electron microscopy The results of the TEM investigations are demonstrated in Fig. 2 . All dusts resulted in agglomerates (diameter
sintering is conventionally being used. However, the method suffers from the drawback of agglomeration of and low sintering activity, therefore the powders generated by such process need high temperature for sintering, which may be as high as 1600 °C in the