The first record of species Penthalodes ovalis (Dugès, 1834) in agricultural habitat is presented in this paper. This is also the first record of the occurrence and damages on grown plants. The variability of the morphology and new data on the biology are given as well.
Pedological and coenological investigations were made around the villages of Alsószuha and Gömörszőlős, in the Putnok Hills microregion, which forms part of the Northern Hungarian Mountains. These were complemented with laboratory nutrient analyses, giving the opportunity to compare the pedological relationships and erosion of natural and ploughed areas. Arable lands can often be found on steep slopes. The brown forest soil types characteristic of these areas are less sensitive to erosion, but they suffer significant damage when cash crops are hoed regularly even on steep slopes.Coenological data indicative of the previous farming system are presented for three plots near Alsószuha. Regular mowing resulted in a large number of plant species even 10 years after cereal production was abandoned. The lack of regular mowing on a plot with a similar farming history, however, resulted in the dominance of aggressive weeds. The species on the third plot showed that the 42 years that had elapsed since cereal production was abandoned, followed by grazing until 1990, ensured enough time for revegetation and the generation of a secondary grassland (slope steppe) in a close-to-natural state. Invasive weeds were absent from all the observed plots.
Authors:N. Mocanu, D. Galeriu, R. Mărgineanu and N. Păunescu
The dynamics of137Cs soil-to-plant transfer has been studied for 21 vegetal species in an agricultural area not far from Bucharest, during a two year experiment started one year after the Chemobyl nuclear accident. The results, generally fitting in the value ranges found in literature, are discussed in the strict sense of the definition for soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides.
Authors:S. Akyil, M. Aslani, G. Gurboga, S. Aytas and M. Eral
Fourty two soil samples were collected to a depth of 20 cm from the Aegean Region of Turkey. The activity concentrations of 226Ra in the samples were determined by a radioanalytical method. The radiochemical yield for pure 226Ra was found to be 90.02±2.74%. The average concentration of 226Ra was 0.150 Bq.g-1 and its distribution fitted a normal curve. The average absorbed dose rate was found to be 61 nGy.h-1. The data were evaluated to explain of 226Ra distribution in the agricultural area and compared with other results in the literature.
Authors:I. Sýkora, P. Povinec, L. Brest’áková, M. Florek, K. Holý and J. Masarik
The 137Cs activity concentration in the surface air between 1977 and 2007 was decreasing with an ecological half-life of 3.4 years,
however, during 2007–2010 the yearly averaged 137Cs activity concentrations were almost constant. The increased atmospheric 137Cs and 40K levels observed during the winter may be due to surface soil resuspension and radionuclide transport by winds, particularly
from open agricultural areas, as confirmed by high correlation coefficient between 137Cs and 40K atmospheric levels (R = 0.84), and similar 137Cs/40K activity ratios in aerosols (0.07) and soils (0.05).
Sustainable agriculture is the re-production of resources, which has a positive impact on the natural environment, assists in the survival of rural communities, and improves the quality of life through food production. The job opportunities can also positively influence the population retention of the communities. The study seeks to answer why a farming community in a traditionally agricultural area may have to re-learn the foundations of crop production on a social agricultural farm created by the local government. In this case study based on my fieldwork, I present the operation of an organic farm established with the help of external resources and specialists as a sustainable agricultural model, its effect on community life, and briefly referring to food culture and lifestyle changes that occurred in Hungary in the second half of the 20th century.
Authors:Jahangir Khan, Zoobia Bashir, Aqeel Ahmad, Wajeeha Tariq, Anam Yousaf and Madiha Gohar
This study mathematically correlates incidence of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), environmental factors (i.e., rainfall, humidity and temperature), and silverleaf whitefly population in agricultural system of Pakistan. It has been concluded that the disease is directly linked with rainfall and humidity. The third most influential factor in defining CLCuV incidence is the vector population, which is also strictly dependent upon monthly mean temperature of Pakistan. Developed mathematical interrelation is capable of predicting disease incidence of future months. Therefore, it will help agriculturists to control disease in agricultural areas of Pakistan. It is strongly advised on the basis of current research that vector population controlling practices should be immediately applied after detecting small elevations in mean monthly temperature.
Authors:Jelena Blagojević, Milanko Šekler, Marija Rajičić, Branka Pejić, Ivana Budinski, Vladimir M. Jovanović, Tanja Adnađević, Dejan Vidanović, Kazimir Matović and Mladen Vujošević
The greatest epidemiological significance of leptospirosis in Europe comes from the fact that it is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. However, epizootiological data, especially information on maintenance hosts such as small wild mammals, are largely missing. To fill this gap in data in Serbia, we used RT-PCR for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira species and analysed 107 animals belonging to six species of small wild mammals (Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus subterraneus and Sorex araneus) collected from two localities. The animals from the first locality that was situated in a tourist area, were collected for four consecutive years (2014–2017). We found persistent incidence of infection from year to year ranging from 6.67% to 78.57%. The average frequency of infected animals was 33.3% with the highest frequency in 2014, the year characterised by a very high number of flooding days. All animals proved to be infected with pathogenic Leptospira species that were collected from the second locality situated in an agricultural area in a single year, 2014. The findings show a variable but constant presence of pathogenic Leptospira species in populations of small wild mammals in the studied areas, which indicates the need for constant monitoring.
Authors:T. Kucserka, Kata Karádi-Kovács, M. Vass, G. Selmeczy, Katalin Hubai, Viktória Üveges, I. Kacsala, N. Törő and Judit Padisák
The aim of the study was to estimate the breakdown of the allochthonous litter in an artificial stream running in an agricultural area and compare it with the same values following a toxic mud spill into the same stream. Litter bags were filled with three types of leaves (Quercus robur, Populus tremula and Salix alba) and placed to the bottom of the river. Ergosterol was used to detect fungal biomass. We supposed the absence of fungi and the retardation of leaf litter decomposition. Only pH and conductivity increased significantly. Leaf mass loss after the catastrophe was much slower than in 2009 and the decay curves did not follow the exponential decay model. Prior to the catastrophe, leaf mass loss was fast in Torna, compared to other streams in the area. The reason is that the stream is modified, the bed is trapezoid and covered with concrete stones. Fungal biomass was lower, than in the pre-disaster experiment, because fungi did not have enough leaves to sporulate. Leaf mass loss followed the exponential decay curve before the disaster, but after that it was possible only after a non-change period.
Authors:M. Szalai, J. Kőszegi, S. Toepfer and J. Kiss
The larvae of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are largely restricted to the roots of maize as food source, and their feeding damage can cause yield losses. The adults are active flyers in search for pollen sources or for new maize fields to colonise. The D. v. virgifera colonisation of first-year maize fields from adjacent continuous maize fields was studied in a 20 km2 intensive agricultural area in South-Western Hungary between 2008 and 2010. Using non-baited yellow sticky traps the infestation levels of adult D. v. virgifera were compared between six first-year maize fields and seven to 12 adjacent continuous maize fields during a seven week period in July and August in each year. The infestation in the continuous maize fields accounted for more than 60% of the variation in the adult D. v. virgifera captures in the adjacent first-year maize fields indicating that adjacent maize fields are the major source of dispersal into first-year maize and not, or to a lesser extent, the area-wide infestation levels. Therefore, estimating the risks of D. v. virgifera infestations in fields of a maize-rotating farmer can be supported by assessing the infestation levels in neighbouring continuous maize fields.