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A, Gill KS and Erayman M (2004) Using Environmental Covariates to Explain Genotype x Environment and QTL × Environment Interactions for Agronomic Traits on Chromosome 3A of Wheat Crop Sci. 44:620–627 Erayman

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Aluko, G.K. 2003. Genetic mapping of agronomic traits from the interspecific cross Oryza sativa (L.) and Oryza glaberrima (Steud.). Ph.D. thesis of agronomy. Louisiana State University and Agricultural

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Quality of wheat grain is a complex trait that depends mostly on the quantity and quality of protein and unified interactions between high molecular glutenin, gliadin, low molecular glutenins and abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and genotype × environment interaction on quality and some agronomic traits in wheat. Twenty divergent genotypes of winter wheat, per five from Serbia, Russia, France and Hungary were analysed in this paper. Variability was observed for quality (grain protein content and sedimentation) and agronomic traits (thousand-grain weight and test weight) in three growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10). Genotypes were statistically analysed [basic statistical parameters, AMMI biplot for the content of protein, correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA)] in order to assess the impact of different growing seasons on selected cultivars. AMMI analysis determined that 2008/09 was very significant for most of the genotypes. The Hungarian cultivar GK-Zugoly had the highest grain protein content (14.4%). Correlation analysis showed different relationships between the traits. PCA indicated that the total variation reflected the first two components represented with 80%, but the first principal component was more important. Results of this paper indicate that the varieties MV-Csardas and Pamyati Kalinenko can be used as a good source of genetic material for future breeding program for agro-ecological conditions of Vojvodina.

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Araki, E., Miura, H., Sawada, S. 1999. Identification of genetic loci affecting amylose content and agronomic traits on chromosome 4A of wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 98 :977

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Karsai, I., Mészáros, K., Szűcs, P., Hayes, P. M., Láng, L., Bedő, Z. (1999): Effects of loci determining photoperiod sensitivity (Ppd-H1) and vernalization response (Sh2) on agronomic traits in the Dicktoo x

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This research was conducted between the years 1999-2002 in the experimental area of the Field Crops Department of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty in Turkey. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Four alfalfa cultivars were used. variance components, variance coefficients and heritability values were determined for morphological characters, herbage yield, dry matter yield and seed yield. The maximum main stem height (78.69 cm), main stem diameter (4.85 mm), leaflet width (0.93 cm), seeds/pod (6.57), herbage yield (75.64 t ha-1), dry matter yield (20.06 t ha-1) and seed yield (0.49 t ha-1) were obtained from the cultivar Marina. The leaflet length ranged from 1.65 to 2.08 cm and the raceme length from 3.15 to 4.38 cm in the alfalfa cultivars. The highest 1000-seed weights (2.42-2.49 g) were found in cultivars Marina and Sitel. The heritability values of main stem height, main stem diameter, leaflet length and width, leaf/stem ratio, racemes/main stem, raceme length, seeds/pod, 1000-seed weight, herbage yield, dry matter yield and seed yield were calculated as 91.0%, 97.6%, 81.8%, 88.8%, 90.4%, 28.3%, 99.0%, 99.2%, 88.0%, 97.2%, 99.6% and 95.4%, respectively.

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Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) is a major field crop grown worldwide. Field research was undertaken at ICARDA’s (International Center for Agriculture Research in Dry Area) main station in Northwest Syria to evaluate barley doubled haploid (DH) and mutants lines for agronomic traits (grain yield, plant height and days to heading) and resistance to scald ( Rhynchosporium secalis ) under natural infection conditions for two consecutive years. Significant differences were found among lines in the percentage of infected leaf area. However, they exhibited a continuous range of response from very susceptible to resistant. Seven lines had significantly lower percentage of infected leaf area with disease than did the other lines, which are associated with potential for grain yield and earliness. These lines could be considered as possible donors in further barley breeding programs.

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Two segregating populations of doubled haploid (DH) wheat lines derived androgenetically from crosses ‘Svilena’ (susceptible) × A-38b-4-5-3-3 (highly resistant) and ‘Svilena’ × WWRN (moderately resistant to moderately susceptible) were characterized for resistance to common bunt. Disease incidence was evaluated after inoculation of seeds with a mixture of Tilletia foetida teliospores in two autumn sown field experiments. Two-gene model of inheritance of resistance in line A-38b-4-5-3-3 was suggested. The transgressive segregation in the latter population was indicative for a quantitative mode of inheritance. The DH lines were assessed for plant height, heading time and important yield components in a three-year field experiment without bunt infection. In both populations, transgressive segregation was observed for all agronomic characteristics. Although the disease incidence was positively correlated with most of the agronomic traits, genotypes combining bunt resistance with good yield potential were isolated from ‘Svilena’ × A-38b set of lines. These genotypes are valuable for breeding varieties designed for growing in low-input and organic farming systems. The two DH populations are suitable to be used for further studies on the genetic basis of bunt resistance.

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The effect of three technological factors (sowing date, fertilization, crop density) and two genotypes was examined on the yield and agronomic traits of sweet corn grown on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region of Hungary. The experiments, conducted at the Látókép Research Site of the University of Debrecen, involved two sowing dates (end of April, end of May), six fertilization levels (control, N30 + PK, N60 + PK, N90 + PK, N120 + PK, N150 + PK) and two plant density levels (45 thousand ha−1, 65 thousand ha−1). Both hybrids used (Jumbo and Enterprise) belong to the mid-late maturity group. Compared to the 30-year average, the climate was dry and warm in 2009. Moisture deficiency had an adverse effect on the yield of crops sown at the second sowing date. By contrast, the second year (2010) was very humid; the precipitation was 184 mm above the 30-year average and the temperature was average.In the dry year the highest yield was obtained with Jumbo for both sowing dates (27253 kg−1, 20921 kg ha−1), while in 2010 Enterprise gave the highest yield (23437 kg−1, 22237 kg ha−1) for both sowing dates. The correlation between the technological factors, the yield and agronomic traits was analysed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient.

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The association between genomic constitution and agronomic traits was studied in F2 plants and F3:4 families of two crosses between a winter hexaploid triticale line with a 2D(2R) chromosome substitution and two hexaploid triticale cultivars carrying the complete rye genome (BBAARR). The analyses revealed that 2D(2R) substitution reduces plant height and spikelet number per spike, increases the 1,000-kernel weight, does not reduce grain shrivelling, and promotes early heading and anthesis. 2D(2R) substitution lines exhibit deeper postharvest seed dormancy, which provides resistance to preharvest sprouting. However, 2D(2R) substitution lines are not recommended for winter hexaploid triticale cultivar development purposes due to their reduced grain productivity.

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