Jelen cikk Michael Posnernek az MTA Pszichológiai Kutatóintézetében tartott előadása alapján készült. Az előadás három nagy témával foglalkozik: elsőként a figyelmi rendszerek általános működését és agyi hátterét mutatja be, majd azok fejlődésével kapcsolatos viselkedéses és elektrofiziológiai adatokat ismertet. Végül a genetikai és környezeti hatásoknak a figyelmi rendszerek működésére gyakorolt hatását elemzi, kitérve azok lehetséges evolúciós fejlődési hátterére.
Diego MA, Jones NA, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Schanberg S, Kuhn C, McAdam V, Galamaga R, Galamaga M: Aromatherapy positively affects mood, EEG patterns of alertness and math computations. Int. J
Authors:Zsófia Anna Gaál, Roland Boha, Brigitta Tóth, and Márk Molnár
): Age-related changes and the attention network task: An examination of alerting, orienting, and executive function . Neuropsychology Development and Cognition Section B Aging Neuropsychology and Cognition , 14 , 353 – 369
Recently, the senior author discovered the presence of a whitefly on sugarcane,
, in Qena, Egypt, and sent specimens to the junior author who identified it as
Takahashi (Homoptera: Alyerodidae). Since this is the first report of this species occurring on sugarcane, an economic crop, and the first distribution record of it occurring in Egypt and the Mediterranean region, we thought it expedient to publicize the information to alert workers in the region to its presence.
Authors:K. Hofstetter, D. Beals, D. Odell, R. Eakle, R. Huffman, and L. Harpring
A simple, inexpensive instrument for measuring radiation fields in otherwise inaccessible locations has been developed. The
RadRope consists of a series of radiation detectors inside a flexible sheath and connected to a data readout device to alert
the operator to unexpected radiation fields at a remote location. The instrument is designed for use in a maritime environment
and will assist inspection personnel in detecting potential illicit radioactive materials or radiological/nuclear weapons
of mass destruction.
The combining ability of four tomato genotypes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) for salt tolerance was determined by investigating the progeny from a 4 × 4 diallel cross. Sixteen progenies (F1s, selfs and reciprocals) were evaluated at three levels of salinity (0%, 1.0%, 1.5%) in a complete block design with four replications under greenhouse conditions. The analysis of the genetic component revealed that the mode of inheritance of salt tolerance appeared to be different to that of plant characters and salinity levels as measured by plant height and fruit yield components. However, the fruit count was consistently controlled by additive gene effects. The specific crosses Moneymaker (MM) × Red Alert (RA) and Ailsa Craig (AC) × Gardener's Delight (GD) produced the highest yield. The small-fruited parents, Red Alert and Gardener's Delight, had higher general combining ability value for salt tolerance than the large-fruited, Ailsa Craig and Moneymaker, for fruit yield components. RA and GD were superior parents in transmitting salt tolerance. The study revealed that plant selection could be used to improve varietal performance for salt tolerance. It is also suggested that the potential variation in commercial cultivars could be exploited to improve adaptability to more saline growing conditions till resistant cultivars are developed through crosses with the wild species or genetic transformation with optimum management practices.
Nowadays natural disasters phenomena as hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis or earthquakes, are still difficult to prevent. Based on signaling of the phenomenon imminent appearance in the destructive area, important limitations in human losses and material damages will be carried out. For that reason, WARNING turned into a key objective, both in theoretical and practical research. For the earthquakes, warning intervals are nevertheless very short - seconds to maximum one minute (Mexico City case). Even if the time window is reduced, automated decision measures are possible to establish in case of an well organized system, mainly for: protection of dangerous chemical units and oil installations; shutdown valves of the natural gas pipelines to prevent fire hazard; protection of nuclear power plants and other high-risk nuclear objectives; electrical insulating of the power distribution network systems; alerting of emergency services, alerting of civil protection, and particularly of civil population; protection of railway transportation systems etc. In Romania, the major seismic risk zone is located in Vrancea region. The earthquakes occurring in this area are the main sources of the seismic hazard on the Romania territory. Seismotectonic characteristics of the Vrancea region offered the opportunity to create and develop a rapid seismic warning system. This system is simple, reasonably low-priced and robust and allows warning in an approximately 25 seconds time window for Bucharest. Warning signal obtained will be issued at the responsible factors and specific users in order to control automated blocking of the installations and to carry out the required protection actions.
Authors:István Pataki, Thabet Ghayth Soultan, and William Chanis
A különböző fejlődési rendellenességek, a szervrendszerek transzpozíciója sebésztechnikai problémákat is okozhatnak. Alábbi esetismertetésünkben cholecystitis miatt végzett sikeres LC műtétünket mutatjuk be. A 68 éves, ismert situs inversus totalist hordozó nőbetegünk kapcsán beszámolunk a kivizsgálás menetéről, a mechanikus icterus megoldásáról, valamint az alkalmazott sebésztechnikai módszerről.
Authors:M. Menezes, E. Pereira Maia, S. Filho, and C. Albinati
In order to assess the elemental concentration level in a galvanizing industry and alert for the need to assess the outcome of a long-term exposure, scalp hair and toenail samples were used as bioindicators and the industry environment was evaluated through airborne particulate matter. The elemental concentration results have pointed out a high exposure to pollutant at workplaces and a high elemental concentration in biomonitors suggesting endogenous contamination. The majority of the elements determined in airborne particulate matter were also determined in hair and toenail samples. The results evidence the efficiency of these matrixes as biomonitors and the importance to carry out the airborne particulate matter sampling in parallel to these biomonitors mainly in occupational epidemiological studies.