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Simple sequence repeat (SSR) DNA markers were used to characterize the genetic diversity in 70 accessions of Aegilops crassa from Iran as well as to determine relationships among these accessions with 9 accessions of Aegilops tauschii (subsp. tauschii and strangulata ) and 5 Triticum aestivum landraces. All twenty SSR primer pairs were polymorphic and identified a total number of 149 alleles corresponding to an average of 7.5 alleles per locus. The highest and lowest PIC values were obtained in subsp. strangulata and Ae. crassa accessions, respectively. Data obtained were used to estimate genetic similarity using the Dice coefficient, and dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA method. The dendrogram separated the 84 accessions into two main groups. All species grouped according to their genomes. A good level of genetic diversity was observed in the accessions of Ae. crassa , even in geographically close regions, which can be used in the broadening of the genetic base of bread wheat. In addition, T. aestivum and subsp. tauschii were clustered further away from Ae. crassa , confirming probably chromosomal rearrangements in the Dgenome of Ae. crassa during the processes of evolution.

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In the natural populations of common wheat landrace Kaixianluohanmai, there was a phKL gene which promotes homoeologous pairing of wheat-alien hybrids. In the present study, the effects of phKL gene on crossability and homoeologous pairing of Triticum aestivum × Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng ex Kuo hybrids were comparatively analyzed. The crossability of the hybrid between Sichuan wheat landrace Kaixianluohanmai and P. huashanica was highest in all the hybrid combinations with 3.18%. The hybrids T. aestivum (Kaixianluohanmai) × P. huashanica showed a pairing configuration of 21.70 univalents + 2.68 rod bivalents + 0.34 ring bivalents + 0.06 trivalents + 0.02 quadrivalents and 3.54 chiasma per PMC at MI. However, the chiasma in hybrids of CS, CS ph1b , CS ph2a and CS ph2b with P. huashanica was 0.56, 1.90, 0.87 and 0.60, respectively. Compared with the hybrids of CS, CS ph1b , CS ph2a and CS ph2b with P. huashanica , a significant increase in the chiasma of homoeologous pairing was observed in the hybrids of T. aestivum (Kaixianluohanmai) × P. huashanica . The effects were shown in the increment of rod bivalents, ring bivalents and trivalents and reduction of univalents. The results indicated that phKL showed a higher effect on promoting homoeologous pairing than ph1 and ph2 in T. aestivum × P. huashanica . The wheat landrace Kaixianluohanmai with phKL gene is probably a more desirable material for alien gene transferring than Ph2 -deficiency lines.

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New wheat × barley, wheat × Aegilops biuncialis and wheat × rye hybrids were produced with the aim of alien gene transfer from these species into wheat. Amphiploids were produced with the help of colchicine treatment from the last two combinations. The new wheat × barley hybrids were multiplied in tissue culture because of the high degree of sterility and then pollinated with wheat to obtain backcross progenies. Wheat-barley chromosome pairing was detected using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in two combinations (Mv9 kr1 × Igri, Asakazekomugi × Manas). In vitro conditions caused an increase in chromosome arm association frequency in both combinations and in fertility in some regenerants. Five wheat-barley translocations were produced in a wheat background and characterized through the combination of cytogenetic and molecular genetic approaches (GISH, FISH and SSR markers). The following translocations were identified: 2DS.2DL-1HS, 3HS.3BL, 6BS.6BL-4HL, 4D-5HS and 7DL.7DS-5HS. Physical mapping of the SSR markers on chromosomes 1H and 5H was carried out using the intragenomic and interspecific translocation breakpoints and the centromere as physical landmarks.  Disomic wheat-Aegilops biuncialis additions were produced after backcrossing the wheat-Ae. biuncialis amphiploids. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out using two repetitive DNA clones (pSc119.2 and pAs1) on Ae. biuncialis and its two diploid progenitor species to detect chromosome polymorphism. The 7M and 3M disomic chromosome additions were selected and five more lines still need to be characterized.  The octoploid triticale (Mv9 kr1 × Lovászpatonai) produced in Martonvásár was crossed with a 1RS.1BL wheat cultivar Matador. GISH analysis detected pairing between the 1RS arm of the translocation chromosome and that of Lovászpatonai rye in 32 % of the pollen mother cells, making it possible to select recombinants from this combination. The new recombinants between the 1RS of Petkus and the 1RS of Lovászpatonai rye cultivars are being analysed with the help of microsatellite markers.

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531 Jiang, J., Friebe, B., Gill, B. S. (1994): Recent advances in alien gene transfer in wheat. Euphytica. , 73 , 199-212. Recent advances in alien gene transfer

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Jiang, J. M., Friebe, B., Gill, B. S. (1994): Recent advances in alien gene-transfer in wheat. Euphytica , 73 , 199–212. Gill B. S. Recent advances in alien gene-transfer in

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. 1992 83 489 494 Jiang, J. M., Friebe, B., Gill, B. S. (1994): Recent advances in alien gene-transfer in wheat

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, H., Kalayci, M., Braun, H.J. 1998. Screening for zinc efficiency among wheat relatives and their utilization for alien gene transfer. Euphytica 100 :281–286. Braun H.J. Screening

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.S. 1994 . Recent advances in alien gene-transfer in wheat . Euphytic . 73 : 199 – 212 . Krolow , K.D. 1970 . Untersuchtungen über die Kreuzbarkeit zwischen

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.M., Friebe, B., Gill, B.S. 1994. Recent advances in alien gene transfer in wheat. Euphytica 73 :199–212. Gill B.S. Recent advances in alien gene transfer in wheat

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Jiang, J.M., Friebe, B., Gill, B.S. 1994. Recent advances in alien gene transfer in wheat. Euphytica 73 :199–212. Gill B.S. Recent advances in alien gene transfer in wheat

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